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Health and social care Essay

1. Understand the purpose of professional supervision in health and social care or children or young people work settings 1.1 Analyse the principles, scope and purpose of professional supervision I am going to analyse the principles, scope and purpose of supervisions. The National Minimum Standards for Care Homes for Older People along with the Skills for Care Council is the legal frame work and tool for all social care providing effective supervisions. The supervision cover all aspects of practice, philosophy of care in the home and the individuals career and development. It is good practice to carry out supervisions and appraisals The National Minimum Standards For Care and Older people and Adults states in Standard 36: The registered person ensures that the employment policies and procedures adopted to the care home induction, training and supervision arrangements are put into practice. A performance supervision is an employers way of telling the employee what is expected of them in their job role and how well they are meeting them exceptions.

Supervisions are a two way process where supervisions are carried out with the individual and their mentor at least every 8 weeks. A supervision is a two way process which aids personal development and allows for communication on a one to one basis. The mentor will monitor the individuals performance to determine competency in a particular area of performance which has been observed. Supervision should be able to identify the positives and any area of concern which the individual could improve on or could benefit from further training. When I undertake any supervision my aim is to identify solutions to any problems, improve practises and increase understanding of any issues. The objectives are competency, accountable performance, continuing professional development and personal support. Supervisions address the need to develop the knowledge and skills and the standards of expected quality. 1.2: Outline theories and models of professional supervision. I have outlined models and theories of professional supervisions, although there are a diverse range of supervision models, I have concentrated on two types, these are developmental and integrative models.

Stoltenberg and Delworth {1987} have described the developmental model in three supervisory stages. These are beginning, intermediate and advanced, with the main focus in each stage on development of self awareness and autonomy. Supervisees are known as a novice or beginner, and will have limited skills and lack confidence, and will require support from their superviser at this stage. Throughout their induction period they will be able to build on their skills and be more confident in their job role. As the individual progresses and their confidence and skills develop, they will begin to move into the intermediate stage.

It is at this stage that the supervisee will begin to question their own actions more and will begin to work more autonomously with less dependence on their superviser. This stage is when a supervisee will begin to integrate theory and practice into their practical tasks. At the advanced level supervisees begin to be accountable for there own descions and the consequences therein. This model of supervision requires a supervisor to have an accurate understanding of the stage at which the supervisee is currently working for the supervisor to be able to help them progress to their next stage. Stoltenberg and Delworth {1987}, use the term scaffolding to describe this model of supervision, ‘ The individual will use the knowledge and skills they already have to facilitate further learning and skill development and are encouraged to combine old and new skills together to improve overall practice. A further model type is Integrative. This model utilises several different theories and approaches too supervision, many of these models refer to supervisions that are carried out in a counsellors role and the need for supervision to maintain best practice.

Stoltenberg and Delworth created a good example of an integrative model when they combined Bernards {1979} discrimination model, Holloway s system approach and Ward and Houses reflective learning model. Bernards model identified three separate parts of supervision called intervention, conceptualisation and personalisation. These are identified along with three possible supervisor roles, Teacher, counsellor and consultant. The teaching role is identified when knowledge or experience is passed on by the supervisor, the counselling role when a supervisor assists with personal issues resulting from professional circumstances and the Consultant role when a supervisor assists the supervisee with the relationship between supervisee and client. The systems approach model as suggested by Holloway places the emphasis on the relationship that forms between supervisor and supervisee.

Holloway separates this relationship into seven different aspects of function, tasks, client, trainee and supervisor and institution. 1.3 Explain the requirements of legislation, codes of practice and agreed ways of working influence professional supervision I am going to explain the requirements of legislation, codes of practice and agreed ways of working influence professional supervisions. The requirements are set out by The Skills of Care Council, The National Minimum Standards for Older People and Adults also CQC requires an outcome on effective supervisions. The Skills for Care Council state ‘High quality supervisions is one of the most important drivers in ensuring positive outcomes for people who use social care and children services’. The National Minimum Standards for Older People and Adults state ‘The registered person ensures all employment policies and procedures adopted to the home and induction, training and supervision arrangements are put into practice.

All care staff will receive at least six supervisions a years and it will cover all aspects of the supervisees working practices any career developments needs and the philosophy of the home. CQC outcome 14 Essential Standard of Quality and Safer for England came into force in 2010 it states People who receive a service from a provider that supervises it’s staff because staff are supported and managed at all times and are clear about their lines of accountability. General Social Care Council Codes of Practice (2002) document covers the agreed ways of working for social care it covers workers and employers and describes the standard of conduct and practice within the work setting. The two codes for workers/employers are presented together as they share joint responsibilities of employers/workers ensuring high standards are met.

The requirements which have been outlined by CQC, Skills for Care, The National Minimum Standards for older people and Adults and General Social care Council have influenced our supervisions to ensure all staff are supported within the company and codes of practices are followed, all staff will receive a formal supervision at least six times a year followed by an annual appraisal, any new employees we like to offer as much support as required and may need to see the employee weekly or fortnightly in the first twelve weeks of working to give support and guidance to understand the organisational values and outcomes in which the work place is working too. Supervision can be a formal discussion or direct observations to monitor performance, skills communication and possible learning/training needs or any issues which can be addressed.

1.4 Explain how findings from research, critical reviews and inquiries can be used with professional supervision Findings from research, reviews and inquiries can be used in professional supervisions in several ways. To work in a safe, effective way it is essential that our work is carried out in a way, that we are able to assess the practice and account for our actions within a particular practice. We do this by keeping up to date with the skills and knowledge available to us through research and review, this is called Evidence based practice. Evidence based practice is the incorporation of evidence and knowledge into our professional decisions and in supervision by informing staff of what the best evidence based practice is.

The database of evidence and review is constantly updated so it is important to keep an accurate picture of current research as this evidence is what we use to support our actions, this is important in supervision too because staff need to be assured that their practice is based on good evidence of which they are informed so that they can improve their own practise in a consistent and current way. The use of the best available evidence allows ethical considerations to be taken on board by the whole organisation as well as the individual because a supervisor can ensure that the members of staff are working in an informed manner and can make them aware of their own responsibility to add to their own knowledge on best practise. In this way best practise can assured across the entire organisation which has shown leads to reduced incident numbers creating a safer workplace for staff and service users.

1.5 Explain how professional supervision can protect the:

Individual Professional supervisions can protect the individual as all supervision are recorded and kept in the supervisee staff file this is because anyone involved can not back track what has been said within the supervision. Its an opportunity to discuss issues and how they can be resolved in accordance to the homes policies and procedures and working practices. Supervisor By covering all aspects of work practices within the supervision I can be confident that I am supporting and developing the supervisee skills and knowledge to their best potential ability also I am able to address any issues that any arise and ensure they are protected by putting the correct procedures in place. A record is kept.

Supervisee Supervisions can protect the supervisee by ensuring confidentiality if serious issues are raised, by reflecting on best practices and developing their skills. They are recorded and kept on file so if any issues are not followed up than the supervisee has a record to keep. 2 Understand how the principles of professional supervision can be used to inform performance management in health and social care or children and young people setting 2.1 Explain the performance cycle There are four stages to the performance cycle. The Charted Institute of Personal Development (CIPD 2006) describe the performance cycle as a systematic approach. This is because all aspects are covered to develop on skills, learning and performance.

Stage 1 Planning; This is the beginning stage of the Performance Management Cycle, I will need to evaluate the supervisee current working role and performance to be able to address areas that may require improvement and set realistic aims and goals for the individual to meet. Stage 2 Monitoring/Develop; At this stage I will monitor staff progress not only on reviews but on a continuous basis which allows me to make any adjustments so the supervisee is able to achieve a successful outcome.

By continuing to monitoring the supervisee on a regular basis I am able to determine if the supervisee requires further training or additional responsibilities to be able to develop on new skills. Stage 3 Perform By motioning the supervisee regularly I am able to observe the individuals performance so that I am able to ensure staff are working to their strengths, to be able to achieve this it is important that all staff have access to resources and training to ensure best practices are followed. Stage 4 Review This is the final stage where both parties evaluate what has been done and achieved. It is as this stage I will see if goals and aims which had been set have been reached by the supervisee. I will than assess what has been achieved to be able to set another set of aim and goals. This is why it is called the performance cycle as new aims, goals and objectives are set for the supervisee in a continuing cycle.

2.2 Analyse how professional supervision supports performance By using a Performance Management Cycle it can provide a structure and a process to the way the staff are managed to identify any training or development needs. The aim is to produce and deliver a high standard of services to ensure all opportunities for improvement are identified and worked towards. Professional supervision supports staff to work towards their aims and goals to achieve good practice and performance, giving support in areas they may be finding difficult to achieve. It will give the supervisee a better understanding of their responsibilities within their job role and will able to reflect on their own working practices. Rewarding good performance within the supervision will provide a higher standard of service and good quality care.

2.3 Analyse how performance indicators can be used to measure practice Performance indicators are a good way to measure practice because they represent the reports of performance criteria which has been put in place so that staff are aware of what is expected of them and how their tasks contribute to the continued success of the organisation. These criteria have measures and standards which state the level of performance required in particular areas of an individuals work, when these criteria are presented to staff within a framework of specific, measures achievable, realistic and time bound objectives accountability through the measurement of practice can be achieved. As staff can be made responsible for maintaining their own standards of practice by the management of their performance.

3 Be able to undertake the preparation for professional supervision with supervisees in health and social care or children and young people setting.!

3.1Explain factors which result in a power imbalance in professional supervision Power imbalance in supervision is affected by several different factors. As a manager you are already in a position of power due to your personal status as an expert and through your position within the organisation power hierarchy. Through personal power that of experience and obtained skill power can be expected by the supervisor as the teacher/student role comes with the power to reward through praise, pay or be used coercively to punish (disciplinary procedures). The legitimate power and the authority that comes with it also allows the supervisor to have the power over some of an individual personal information, which further places the supervisee in a position of weakness.

3.2Explain how to address power imbalance in own supervision practice Within supervision a power  imbalance will always exist as your role as a manager it gives you authority and responsibility over your superviees. For best supervisory practice to be carried out, this imbalance needs to be addressed. A supervisor can only begin to deal with this imbalance when they are aware of their own power and how this affects their relationship with staff. A manger who is aware of the imbalance can counter it’s effects by treating staff with respect and friendliness without crossing into over familiarity which can erode necessary authority. If this respect for staff is backed by honest and diligent work practices by the supervisor themselves then goodwill between supervisor and staff is achieved. 3.3Agree with supervisee confidentiality, boundaries, roles and accountability within the professional supervision progress A formal professional supervision is a written agreement and is used to clarify the roles, responsibilities and goals of supervision.

The supervision is a contract between the supervisior and the supervisee, where they will both agree on a time and the location where the supervision will take place. All area’s covered in the supervision are strictly confidential, there are times when all mandatory requirements over ride the supervisee confidentiality for example confidentiality will be broken when serious issues need to be reported to government agencies. The boundaries are set out at the start of the supervision where I will explain we both agree to follow all the homes polices and procedures and guidelines of the homes setting.

I will remind the supervisee the confidentiality agreement on both sides and agree boundaries of area’s which may have to be looked into. Agree the session will not be interrupted unless there is an emergency, this helps to confirm the importance of the supervision. Both parties will agree an agenda for discussion at the start of the supervision which will include their performance what support may be needed additional training and workload discussion also any management issues. We will agree an action plan following each item discussed. A record will be kept in the supervisee staff file.

3.4Agree with supervisee the frequency and location of professional supervision The homes policy and the supervisee supervision, agreement of location and frequency can be agreed between both parties. The supervision will be booked in advance with a suitable room available which can be used. This is to ensure that the supervisee is comfortable and confident that the process will take place in a calm environment. Supervision frequency will depend on the homes policy and procedure, our homes policy is supervision should be carried out 6 to 8 weeks with a yearly appraisal. 3.5Agree with supervisee sources of evidence that can be used to inform professional supervisions

The supervision will be booked in advance with supervisee and an agenda would have already been drawn up. The supervisee may be undertaking a course and require some support with completing so they will need to bring it along. I will explain to the supervisee what direct observation will be carried out before the supervision these also will be discussed. 3.6Agree supervisee actions to be taken in preparation for professional It will depend on the evidence I require from the supervisee depending on the agreement made and the agenda of the supervision. Actions would have been put in place from the previous supervision and the supervisee was set out work to complete the supervisee will need to bring this with them, these may copies of course work completed, reflective accounts on their performance.

The supervisee should prepare for the supervision and have a copy of the agenda set out from the last meeting, 4 Be able to provide professional supervision in health and social care or children and young people s work setting 4.1Support supervisees to reflect their own practice Performance indicators are a good way to measure practice because they represent the recruits of performance criteria which have been put in places that staff are aware of what is expected of them and how there tasks contribute to the continued success of the organisation. These criteria results have measures and standards which state the level of performance required is particular areas of an individuals work/performance.

When these criteria are presented to staff within a framework of specfic measures , achievable,realistic and time bound objectives accountability through the measurement of practice can be achieved, as staff can be made responsible for maintaining their own standards of practice. Supporting supervisee in the process of reflection is important as it enables the manager to centralise theory and practice, this allows practice to be assessed from more an objective view point. The reflection process can be clarified by structuring it within headings of reflection these are: Description; Where, Who, Result Feelings; What were you thinking/feeling during a given  event Evaluation; What was good or bad? How do you see the event Conclusion; Things learnt from experience Action Plan; how would you respond if the situation arose again It is best when supporting supervisees to identify the key elements of reflection of their own practices.

The key elements of reflection itself which is the deep thinking which helps us to understand ourselves and others and these situations were involved in. The ability to stand back to allow overview within our reflection to repeat our actions to get a better picture of something having a deeper sense of honesty within reflection by acknowledgement of our own practices That we might otherwise ignore. Learning to weigh up or evaluate experiences which help us to be fair in our judgements by taking all things into account, achieve clarity for greater understanding by reflecting on events which have happened to get a wider viewpoint. Making judgements within reflection allows us to change, develop or agree approach.

4 2 Provide positive feedback about the achievements of the supervisee To be able to provide positive feedback there needs to be open communication between the supervisior and the supervisee. Positive feedback can be given daily and through regular supervisions. To be able to give a positive feedback during a formal supervision I will ask the supervisee how they perceive their performance of a task before I give my assessment of their performance this is so I am able to see what the supervisee understands about how well they are doing in their job role, by taking this approach I am also encouraging the supervisee to reflect on their own performance.

4:3 Provide constructive feedback that can be used to improve performance. To be able to provide constructive feedback to supervisee’s praise is given first than negatives , followed by praise this is known as the term ‘feedback sandwich’ it is a three step procedure to help provide constructive feedback to supervisee’s, by using this technique the negative news is sandwiched by the good news. In taking this approach when it comes to constructive feedback the supervisee hears good points on their performance and how well some areas are working and the negatives can be addressed on how they can be improved providing guidance, support and extra training if available so the supervisee is able to improve their knowledge and technique. 4:4 Support supervisees to identify their own development needs Having regular supervisions with the supervisee, on going staff development is an area which is discussed as these needs can reflect on their job role and long term goals for the supervisee and organisation on a whole.

The supervisee may be seeking new responsibilities or would like to take further training courses to be able to provide themselves with more knowledge and to be able to gain a higher position within the company. As a supervisor it is important to have up to date knowledge with all policies changes and national regulations to be able to specify what training is needed. There is requirements attached to professional development to various roles which is required by the regulatory bodies such a CQC, General Social Work Council.

4:5 Review and revise professional supervision targets to meet identified objectives of the setting Appraisals are performed at the end of the year with the supervisee, this is to review and revise the supervisee proffesional development and their proformance. The appraisal is arranged with the supervisee and is booked in advance and time allocated to ensure the main points on the agenda are covered and agreed. The supervisee is also asked to complete their own evaluation on their performance and what they have achieved and to bring with them to the meeting to be discussed. The supervisee will be aware of any under performance which had been highlighted through supervisions. The objective of the appraisal is to identify ways in which the supervisee could improve on their performance over the next year and set out new goals for the coming year.

4:6 Support supervisees to explore different methods of addressing challenging situations To support supervisees who have come across or may have to deal with challenging situations is to direct them to the homes policies and procedures. All supervisees are provided the appropriate training. It is also a good idea at staff meetings to remind and refresh staff of types of challenging situations which can arise within the homes setting. 4:7 Record agreed supervisions decisions All supervision meetings should be recorded properly to be able to identify any support the supervisee may need. This is also to ensure any agreed actions have been completed within there time scale.

Without any records we are unable to identify what tasks have been set or support which is needed. After the supervision meeting has taken place and notes been typed a copy of the supervision meeting is given a supervisee both copies will be signed and dated by both parties.

5: To be able to manage conflict situations during professional supervision in health and social care or children and young people’s work settings 5:1 Give examples from own practice of managing conflict situations within professional supervision 5:2 Reflect on own practice in managing conflict situations experienced during professional supervision process. In the work place you may come across two types of conflict: Tasked based conflict- which are disagreements related to approaches to work, processes and structural issues within the team and organisation. Relationship- based conflict: which are conflicts between individual members of the team and are usually caused by differences in personal value and beliefs.

JC is a new member of staff and has started his 3 month probation period within Milton Lodge, on numerous occasions JC had arrived late for the start of the shift and his appearance has not also been acceptable through not wearing the correct uniform. I arranged a meeting with JC to raise my concerns, the agenda was timekeeping and appearance. JC and myself discussed the affects of his lateness had on the rest of the team, we spoke about JC appearance of not wearing the correct uniform and what affect that had on the organisation for the service users and visitors who entered the home. JC said this would improve as he enjoyed working at Milton Lodge. I explained during his probation period he should be presenting himself well to be offered a permanent contract, I told JC I was going to extend his probation period for a further three months with seniors members of staff regularly monitoring his timekeeping and appearance, JC agreed to this.

I have reflected back on my own practice in managing a conflict situation by extending JC probation period for a further three months it gave JC the chance to make improvements to his working practices to show he was committed to his work performances and the organisation to become a asset to the company and the home. 6 Be able to evaluate own practice when conducting professional supervision in health and social care or children and young people settings.

6:1 Gather feedback from supervisee/s on own approach to supervision process To gather feedback from supervisees to evaluate my own work practices as a supervisor, on a 6 monthly basis I ask staff to complete a anonymous questionnaire, question which are included are How did you find my approach to the supervision session? How might I improve it? What areas do I need to improve? These question assist me to evaluate my own work performance and to be able to make any improvements if it is required or attend further training programmes. 6:2 Adapt approaches to own professional supervision in light of feedback from supervisees and others. I am able to adapt new approaches to my own supervsions by feedback from others, by taking in account of others feelings and work ethics. Further training courses on supervisions and appraisals can assist me with using different methods and approaches when supervising a individual.


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