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Hazards to food safety Essay

College of Hospitality Management

Lesson 2: HAZARDS TO Food Safety
General Symptoms of Foodborne Illness

– Headache- Abdominal Pain
– Nausea- Diarrhea
– Vomiting- Fatigue
– Dehydration- Fever

When a living, disease-causing microorganism is eaten along with a food, it can cause a foodborne infection. After ingestion, the organism burrows into the lining of the victim’s digestive tract and begins to grow in number. This can lead to the common symptoms of FBI like diarrhea. A common type of foodborne infection is salmonellosis. The disease is caused by Salmonella bacteria that are frequently found in poultry and eggs.

1. Infection
Caused by eating food that contains living disease causing microorganism. Ex. Bacteria, virus, parasites / grows inside the body and stomach FBI: Salmonella bacteria that are frequently found in poultry and eggs. 2. Intoxication

Caused by eating foods that contains harmful chemical or toxin produced chemical waste or toxin. If the food containing the toxin is eaten, the toxin causes an illness. Ex. Food Poisoning, common examples of food intoxication are Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus aureus. Intoxication may also occur when an e person consumes food that contains man-made chemicals such as cleaning agents or pesticides. 3. Toxin-mediated infection

Caused by eating food that contains harmful microorganisms that will produce a toxin once inside the human body. (as in the case of an infection) A toxin-mediated infection is different from intoxication because the toxin is produced inside the body. An example of an organism that causes this type of illness is Clostridium Perfingens. On set time

Is the number of hours between the time a person eats contaminated food and when they first show symptoms of the disease. Individual onsets vary depending on factors such as age, health status, body weight and the amount of contaminant ingested with the food.

Refers to a biological, chemical or physical hazard that can cause illness or injury when consumed along with the food.

Biological Hazards
Include bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi. These organisms are very small and can only be seen with the aid of a microscope. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that require food, moisture and warmth to multiply. Chemical Hazards

Are toxic substances that may occur naturally or may be added during the processing of food. Ex. Include agricultural chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics), cleaning compounds, heavy metals (lead mercury), food additives, and food allergens.

Chemicals and other non-food items should never be placed near food items. Physical Hazards
Are hard or soft foreign objects in food that can cause illness and injury. They include items such as fragments of glass, metal, unfrilled toothpicks, jewelry, adhesive bandages and human hair. These hazards result from accidental contamination and poor handling practices at many points.

Are one of the most important biological foodborne hazards for any food establishment. Bacteria are reported in more cases of FBI than any hazards. All bacteria exist in a vegetative state. Vegetative cells grow, reproduce, and produce waste just like other living organism. Some bacteria have the ability to form spore. Spores help bacteria survive when their environment is too hot, cold, dry, acidic or when there is not enough food. Spores are not able to grow or reproduce. CLASSIFICATIONS OF BACTERIA

Spoilage Bacteria
Degrade (break down) foods so that they look, taste and smell bad. They reduce the quality of food to unacceptable levels. Pathogenic Bacteria

Are disease-causing microorganisms that can make people ill if they or their toxins are consumed with food.

Bacterial Growth – the reproduction of bacteria and an increase in the number of organisms. Binary Fusion – a process which bacteria reproduce when one bacterial cell divides to form new cells.

1. Food – High in protein and Carbohydrates
2. Acid – Mildly acid environment of pH of 4.6 – 7.0
3. Temperature – between 41oF (5oC) and 135 oF (57oc)
4. Time – four hours
5. Oxygen – depending on the type of bacteria (with Oxygen or without 0 or both) 6. Moisture – Water activity greater than 0.85

FOUR PHASES OF BACTERIAL GROWTH (Lag – Log – Stationary – Decline)

1. Lag Phase – in which the bacteria exhibit little or no growth. The bacteria adjust to their surroundings during this phase. The lag phase last only a few hours at room temperature. 2. Log Phase – bacteria growth is very rapid during this phase with bacteria doubling in numbers every few minutes. Keeping bacteria from reaching the log phase of growth is critical for food safety 3. Stationary Phase – the number of new bacteria being produced equals the number of organisms that are dying off during this phase.

The bacteria have made up much of the space, nutrients and moisture in the food by this phase. 4. Decline Phase – in here bacteria die off rapidly because they lack nutrients and are poisoned by their own toxic waste.


1. Source of FOOD
Most bacteria prefer foods that are high in protein or carbohydrates like meats, poultry, seafood’s, dairy products and cooked rice, beans and potatoes.(Microbes eat the same food we do)

2. ACIDITY – the pH symbol is used to designate the activity of alkalinity of food. You measure pH on a scale that ranges from 0 to 14. Most foods are acidic and have a pH less than 7.0. Very acid foods (pH below 4.6), like lemons, limes and tomatoes, will not normally support the growth of disease-causing bacteria. Pickling fruits and vegetables preserve the food by adding acids such as vinegar. This lowers the pH of the food in order to slow down the rate of bacterial growth. A pH above 7.0 indicates the food is alkaline.

Examples of alkaline foods are olives, egg whites, or soda crackers. Most bacteria prefer a neutral environment (pH of 7.0) but are capable of growing in foods that have a pH in the range of 4.6 to 9.0. Since most foods have pH of less than 7.0, we have identified the range where harmful bacteria grow; from 4.6 to 7.0. Many foods offered for sale in food establishment have a pH in this range.

3. TEMPERATURE – commonly measured in degree Fahrenheit denoted as oF), degrees Celsius (denoted as oC), or both. Psychrophilic Bacteria – grow with a temperature range of 32 oF (0oC) to 70 oF (21oC). They can survive at refrigerated and room temperature. Mesophilic Bacteria – (Middle Range) grow at temperatures between 70oC (21oC) & 110oF (43oC) with most rapid

growth at human body temperature (98.6 OF, 37oC). Thermophilic Bacteria – grow best at temperatures above 110oF (43oC). All Thermophilic bacteria are spoilage organism

Temperature Danger Zone
Most disease causing bacteria can grow within a temperature range 41oF (5oC)
to 139oF (60oC). Time and Temperature are the most critical factors affecting the growth of bacteria in foods. “Keep it hot, keep it cold or don’t keep it!” (Hot 135oF – Cold 41oF)

Temperature Abuse – is the term applied to foods that have not been heated to safe temperature or kept at the proper temperature. This could result in a foodborne illness.

4. Time – under ideal conditions, bacterial cells can double in number every 15 to 30 minutes. Clostridium Perfringens bacteria can double every 10 minutes. For most bacteria, a single cell can generate over one million cells in just five hours. Proper storage and handling of foods helps to prevent bacteria from multiplying. Bacteria need about four (4) hours to grow to high enough numbers to cause illness. “In danger Zone”

5. Oxygen – also differ in their requirements for oxygen.
Aerobic Bacteria – must have oxygen in order to grow

Anaerobic Bacteria – cannot survive when oxygen is present because it is toxic to them. Usually grow well in Vacuum packaged foods or canned goods) Facultative Anaerobic – can grow with or without free oxygen but have a preference. -Controlling oxygen conditions may not be an effective way to prevent foodborne illness.

6. Moisture – is an important factor in bacterial growth. Drying is the oldest and the best method to preserve food. Many foods are preserved by lowering their water activity to 0.85 below. Drying foods or adding salt and sugar reduces the amount of water. (frozen foods)

Water Activity (Aw)
Is a measure of the amount of water that is not bound to the food and is, therefore available for bacterial growth. Aw such as dairy products, poultry & eggs, meats, pasta, steamed rice etc. Below 0.85 Aw such as Dry noodles, dry rice, flour jam & jellies etc.

Some types of foods have the ability to support the rapid and progressive growth of infectious and toxin-producing microorganism Usually: high in protein or carbohydrates / have a pH above 4.6 / have a water activity above 8.5.

Common examples of PHF:
Red meats
Raw Shell Eggs
Fish & Shellfish
Dairy Products
Others: Vegetables, Cooked rice or potatoes, refried beans & fruits such as cut cantaloupe. Must not be held at Temperature Danger Zone within 41oF (5oC) to 135oF (57oC) for 4 hours or more.

Ready to Eat Foods – foods are items that are edible without washing, cooking, or additional preparation by the consumer or by the food establishment. These foods can become contaminated if not handles properly. Examples of ready to eat foods that can be eaten immediately: Delicatessen items such as cheeses and luncheon meats

Fruits and vegetables
Salad items
Hard-boiled eggs

Foodborne Illness Caused by Bacteria
Classified as Sporeforeming – enable a cell to survive environmental stress such as cooking, freezing, drying & high salt. Non-Sporeforeming – easily destroyed by proper cooking

Spores are not harmful if ingested, except in a baby’s digestive system. If a spore turns into a vegetative cell, the vegetative cell can grow in the food and cause illness if eaten.

Sporeforeming bacteria found in foods grown in soil like: Vegetables / Spices / Animal Products.

BACILLUS CEREUS-Sporeforming bacterium that can survive with or without oxygen. Bacterial intoxication or toxin mediated infection
Diarrhea type: abdominal cramps (8-16 hrs)

Vomiting type:vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps(30 min.-6hrs.) Diarrhea type: meats, milk, vegetable

Vomiting type:rice, starchy foods, grains, cereals
Properly heat, cool, and reheat foods
CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS-is a nearly anaerobic.(must have very little oxygen) Bacterial toxin-mediated infection
Intense sbdominal pains and severe diarrhea, (8-22 hrs.)
Spices, gravy, improperly cooled foods(especially mets and gravy dishes) Properly cook, cool, and reheat foods
CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM-Is an anaerobic(must not have oxygen) Produces NEUROTOXIN-Which is one of the most deadliest biological toxins known to man. Bacterial intoxication Dizziness, double vision, difficulty in breathing and swallowing, headache (12-36 hrs.) Improperly canned foods, vacuum packed refrigerated foods;cooked foods in anaerobic mass. Properly heatprocess anaerobically packed foods; Do not use home canned foods. CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI- is a major cause of foodborne infection.It requires a very strict amount of air for growth.As microaerophile,it can tolerate 3-6% oxygen for growth Bacterial infection

Watery, bloody diarrhea (2-5 days)
Raw chicken, raw milk, raw meat
Properly handle and cook foods; avoid cross contamination
SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI- Anaerobic bacteria found in the intestines of warm blooded animals, especially cows. Bacterial infection or toxin mediated infection.

Bloody diarrhea followed by kidney failure and haemolytic uremic syndrome(HUS) in severe cases,(12-72 hrs.) Undercooked hamburger, raw milk, unpasteurized apple cider, lettuce Practice good food sanitation, handwashing; properly handle and cook food LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES- is a facultative anaerobic(can grow with or without oxygen) This microbe has the ability to survive under many conditions such as high-salt foods and can grow at refrigerated temperatures (below 41F;5C) Bacterial Infection

Healthy adult: flu like symptoms

At risk population: septicaemia, meningitis, encephalitis, birth defects (1day-3 weeks)
Raw milk, dairy items, raw meats, refrigerated ready-to-eat foods, processed read-to-eat meats such as hot dogs, raw vegetables and seafood Properly store and cook foods; avoid cross contamination; rotate processed refrigerated foods using FIFO to ensure timely use. SALMONELLA SPP.- Facultative anaerobic, found in the intestinal tract of humans and warm blooded animals. Bacterial infection

Nausea, fever, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea (6-48 hrs.) Raw meats, raw poultry, eggs, milk, dairy products
Properly cook foods; avoid cross contamination SHIGELLA SPP.- Facultative anaerobic, found in the intestines and feces of humans and warm blooded animals,The bacterium produces a toxin that reverses the absorption of water bach into the body. Bacterial Infection

Bacillary dysentery, diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, dehydration, (1-7 days) Foods that are prepared with human contact: salads, raw vegetables, milk, dairy products, raw poultry, non-potable water, ready to eat meat Wash hands and practice good personal hygiene; properly cook foods STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS- Facultative anaerobic bacteria that produces a heat stable toxin as it grows on foods. Grow well when alone. Bacterial intoxication

Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, headaches (2-6hrs.)
Foods that are prepared with human contact, cooked or processed foods Wash hands and practice good personal hygiene. Cooking WILL NOT inactivate the toxin. VIBRIO SPP.- Vibrio cholera, parahaemolyticus, vulnificus… all these three are very resistant to salt and are common in seafood Bacterial infection

Headache, fever, chills, diarrhea,vomiting, severe electrolyte loss, gastroenteritis, (2-48 hrs) Raw or improperly cooked fish and shellfish
Practice good sanitation; properly cook foods; avoid serving raw seafood FOODBORNE ILLNESS CAUSED BY VIRUSES
HEPATITIS A- Foodborne virus that has been associated with many foodborne infections. It causes a liver disease called infectious hepatitis Viral infection

Fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, swelling of the liver, jaundice (10-50 days) Foods that are prepared with human contact; contaminated water Wash hands and practice good personal hygiene; avoid raw seafood NORWALK VIRUS- another common foodborne virus that has been associated with many foodborne infections. Viral Infection

Vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, low grade fever; onset 24-48 hrs. Sewage contaminated water, contaminated salad ingredient, raw clams, oysters and infected food workers Use potable water; cook all shellfish; handle food properly, meet time, temperature guidelines for PHF ROTAVIRUS- Is a leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and children Viral infection

Diarrhea, vomiting, low grade fever;1-3 days onset; lasts 4-8 days Sewage contaminated water, contaminated salad ingredients, raw seafood Good personal hygiene and handwashing; Propr food handling practices

ANISAKIS SPP.- are nematodes(roundworms) associated with foodborne infection from fish. The worms are about1-1/2 inches long and a diameter of a human hair. Thay are beige, ivory, white, gray,brown,or pink. Other names for this parasite are “cod worm” and “herring worm” Parasite Infection

Coughing, vomiting onset 1hour-2weeks
Raw or undercooked seafood; especially bottom feeding fish
Cook fish to the proper temperature throughout; freeze to meet FDA Food code specifications CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS- is a parasite that has been reported much more frequently beginning in the 1990’s Parasitic Infection

Watery and explosive diarrhea, loss of appetite, bloating (1 week) Water, strawberries, raspberries and raw vegetables
Good sanitation, reputable supplier
CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM- Single cell microorganisms called protozoa. Found in water that has been contaminated with cow feces. Parasitic infection
Severe watery diarrhea within 1 week of ingestion

Contaminated water, food contaminated by infected food workers. Use potable water supply; practice good personal hygiene and handwashing GIARDIA LAMBLIA- Found in the feces of wild animals, domestic pets and infected persons Parasitic infection

Diarrhea within 1 week of contact
Contaminated water
POTABLE WATER SUPPLY; good personal hygiene and handwashing
TOXOPLASMA GANDII- Common in warm blooded animals including cats, rats, mice, pigs, cows, sheep, chickens, and birds Parasitic infection

Mild cases of the disease involve swollen lymph glands, fever, headache, and muscle aches. Severe cases may result in damage to the eye or brain (10-13days) Raw meats, raw vegetables and fruit
Good sanitation, reputable supplier and proper cooking.

TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS- roundworm that causes parasitic infection Parasitic infection from a nematode worm Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, muscle soreness (2-28 days) Primarily undercooked pork products and wild game meats( bear, walrus) Cook foods to the proper temperature throughout

Chemical hazards are usually classified as either naturally occurring or man-made chemicals.

NATURALLY OCCURING CHEMICALS- include toxins that are produced by a biological organism. Allergens
Shellfish Toxin
FOOD ALLERGENS- causes a person’s immune system to “overreact” An allergic reaction usually involving the skin, mouth, digestive tract, or airways Skin- hives, rashes, and itching
Mouth- swelling and itching of the lips and tongue
Digestive tract- vomiting and diarrhea
Airways- difficulty breathing, wheezing
Foods that contain: milk, eggs, wheat, nuts, and peanuts, fish and shellfish Packaged and prepared foods must be properly labelled if they contain common food allergens so that sensitive people can avoid it CIGUATOXIN- The toxin is found in tiny, free swimming sea creatures called algae which live among certain coral reefs Fish toxin originating from toxic algae of tropical waters

Vertigo, hot/ cold flashes, diarrhea, vomiting (15min- 24 hrs.) Marine finfish including grouper, barracuda, snapper, jack, mackerel, triggerfish, reef fish Purchase fish from a reputable supplier; cooking WILL NOT inactivate the toxin SCOMBROTOXIN- also called histamine poisoning, is caused by eating foods high in a chemical compound called histamine Seafood toxin originating from histamine producing bacteria

Dizziness, burning feeling in the mouth, facial rash or hives, peppery taste in mouth, headache, itching, teary eyes, runny nose(1-30min) Tuna, mahi-mahi, bluefish, sardines, mackerel, anchovies, amberjack, abalone Purchase fish from a reputable supplier, store fish at low temperatures to prevent growth of histamine-producing bacteria; toxin is not inactivated by cooking SHELLFISH ROXINS:PSP, DSP, DAP, NSP- The toxins are produced by certain algae called dinoflagellates Intoxication

Numbness of lips, tongue, arms, legs, neck; lack of muscle coordination (10-60 min) Contaminated mussels, clams, oysters, scallops
Purchase from a reputable supplier
MYCOTOXINS- Mycotic organisms or fungi are molds, yeasts, and mushrooms, some of which are capable of causing foodborne illness.Fungi are larger than bacteria. And they prefer foods that are high in sugar or starches Intoxication

1.Acute onset hemorrhage, fluid build up
2. Chronic onset cancer from small doses overtime
Moldy grains, corn, corn products, peanuts, pecans, walnuts, and milk Purchase food from a reputable supplier; keep grains and nuts dry; and protect products from humidity ADDED MAN-MADE CHEMICALS

MAN-MADE CHEMICALS- include substances that are added, intentionally or accidentally, to a food during processing. Cleaning solutions and sanitary supplies

Food additives
Pesticides- Leave residues on fruits and vegetables and can usually be removed by a vigorous washing procedure. Chemicals from containers or food-contact surfaces of inferior metal that are misused may lead to heavy-metal or inferior –metal poisoning (cadmium, copper, lead, galvanized metals, etc.)

PHYSICAL HAZARDS- Are foreign objects in food that can cause illness and injury Fragments of glasses
Metal shavings
Unfrilled Toothpicks
Human hair
And Jewellery
Stones, rocks or wood particles
Staple wires

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