Durkheim tells that ‘social facts’ means nothing but sociological data. These facts are normal ways of thoughts and acting each member of society feels forced to conform. In these facts personal qualities of individuals are irrelevant. These ‘facts’ belong to the whole of thoughts, sentiments and actions; these cannot be reduced for the individuals in whose behavior they manifest themselves. In terms of individual psychology, collective believes and behavior can’t be explained by some tokens.
Durkheim states that individuals want new social psychology, for only the social can explain the social. Durkheim persist that to understand on set of social phenomena, kinship and marriage are to be understood in field of economics, religion etc. This is the essence of functionalism. The above aspect of the work of French sociologist created the origin of the British social anthropologists. Thus, with the coming of ‘structural-functional’ school in Great Britain. In the real sense of development ‘modern social anthropology’ was emerged.
At this time, students of Malinowski and Radeliffe-Brown have provided new types of data. By the observed field data, Malinowski and Radeliffe-Brown gave new guidelines to anthropology influenced by Emile Durkheim (Srivastava, 2005). Functionalism theory was developed by Bronislaw Malinowski who was influenced by Durkheim. Emile Durkheim says in his sociology as society is a unit and there is a necessity of perpetuation of society in itself. Malinowski theory of functionalism was developed based on Durkheim’s sociology.
Malinowski treated Durkheimian as origin of his theory with the difference of cultural aspects in his method. Durkheim expanded his theory from the top down that means he discuss about social aspects first and the features of psychological are discussed after that and more part of that theory integrated with social facts. Though Malinowski developed the theory based on Durkheim’s theory, his theory is bottom up and elaborated from the psychological aspects to cultural aspects (Worsfold).
The functionalism of Malinowski was very much synchronization with sociological theory of Durkheim. Durkheim together with some other authors such as Hubert, Mauss and often Malinowski writes L’Annee Sociologique and it was buildup with some imperative theoretical and methodological aspects of functionalism. The writings of Malinowski were unequivocally influenced by Durkheim. Malinowski (1944b:19) says “Durkheim for one-sided arguments, metaphysical bias and an idealistic vision of social reality”.
But Malinowski saw Durkheim as the organizer of French Sociology and anthropology. Durkheim’s main context was the cultural phenomena. So it was more important to cultural aspects of Malinowski and Malinowski said “the full scientific understanding of culture as a specific phenomenon”. Malinowski still accepted the Methodological hypothesizes of Durkheim were very vital involvement in the improvement of social anthropology. Through the opinions and proceedings of Durkheim to sociological objects was balanced with the exertions of Malinowski (Ellen 1988).
Marcel Mauss was the nephew and also student of Durkheim. He was developed sociology together with Durkheim. The inquiry of anthropology disturbed with the materials of social amalgamation tumble down from the activities of Durkheim who was the educator and French sociologist. This was passed from Durkheim to his student Mauss. Durkheim and Marcel Mauss are in the same way of sociology. But Mauss never wrote any book regarding to the subject of religion like Durkheim’s attempt in “The elementary forms” (James, Mauss & Allen, 1998).
Reference: Ellen,R. F. (1988) Malinowski between two worlds: the Polish roots of an anthropological tradition New York, NY: CUP Archive James, W. Mauss, M & Allen, N. J. (1998) Marcel Mauss: a centenary tribute. Berghahn Books. Srivastava, A. R. N, (2005) Essentials of Cultural Anthropology. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Worsfold, A. Bronislaw malinowski (1884-1942). In change. freeuk. Retrieved from http://www. change. freeuk. com/learning/socthink/malinowski. html