1. An introduction that defines a problem, stresses its importance, and offers a brief description of the proposed solution. An analysis of the problem, discussing its causes and its effects. A detailed plan that shows step by step how to solve the problem. A costs benefits analysis that that measures the benefits of the plan against its costs. A conclusion that looks to the future and stresses the importance of taking action.
2. When someone wants to solve a problem or present new ideas they will be asked to write a proposal. A solicited proposal responds to the requests for proposals. Then there’s a grant proposal that are used by non-profit organizations and researchers to obtain funding for their projects. A person writing for a company or organization for new ideas use internal proposals. An external proposals are written for clients that are selling a company’s services.
3. Defining the problem. Analyzing the problem. Researching and gathering information and sources. Planning to solve the problem. Researching and finding similar projects.
4. Empirical sources, print sources, online sources.
5. Map out your plan, explore each major step, evaluating each step at a time. Figure out the costs and benefits of your plan and with your plan mapped out you will be able to identify its costs and benefits.
6. The goal is to determine whether the benefits of your plan outweigh the costs. Prove to your readers that the benefits are worth the costs and when figuring out the costs and benefits, brainstorming is essential.
7. The strategies that will help your proposal sound more convincing reflect on a few ques. Pick and authoritative tone that expresses a sense of authority. Use a concept map around it. Use metaphors and similes. Pay attention to the sentence length and minimize the jargon.
8. Use photographs to help you explain the problem or show examples of your solution. Put ideas into bulleted lists that are more scannable to your readers. Have an image that your proposal should project to its readers.
9. The 4 things a writer should follow when revising or editing a proposal is, to always look for inconsistencies in content, get rid of the extra stuff that isn’t relevant. Look for places where the design is inconsistent and looks odd and tweak it. Then most importantly proofread your proposal.
10. PAGE 248-253
List 5 major problems that he identifies. Why does he believe athletic scholarships are partly to blame for these problems?
11. A typical report have the following features; executive summary or abstract, introduction, methods section, results or findings section, discussion section, conclusion and recommendations, end material references and appendices.
12. Your research question should state your topic and identify the issue that your research will address. You hypothesis should guide you into your research. It’s your best guess about how your research question will be answered.
13. Brainstorm and figure out what you already know. Create an outline or a concept map or whatever else you would like to use to get your thoughts down on paper. Then do some research.
14. Introduction, explain your topic, provide background information and explain why it is important to the readers.
15. Explain your research so that others may replicate it. Explain how and why.
16. They are the sections dedicated to describe what you found.
17. Restate your main point, make 2-5 recommendations, and reemphasize the importance of the topic and look to the future.
18. Chapters 27 and 28 of the text or literally anywhere online (such as OWL Purdue).
19. Nominalization is the use of a verb, adjective, or as the head of a noun phrase with or without morphological transformation. If writers want to get rid of them, they must be aware of what they are writing and rearrange the sentences accordingly.
20. Depending on your audience, you’ll have to write in a certain style to appeal to them. You could write in a down-to-business tone, use top-down paragraphs, or even use plain sentences.
21. They offer the topic being discussed as well as professionalism to the report as a whole. Also provides information as to who or what the report belongs to.
22. Proofread, review, check for holes, get rid of nonessential information, pay attention to your paragraphs.
23. It is defined in the introduction. It is basically sexual objectification, standards based on attractiveness or sexiness, sexuality imposed on someone who does not want it, or a person’s value coming from their sexual appeal or behavior. Yes I agree. Sex is everywhere. Sex sells! I’m sure everyone has experienced this at one time or another.
1. Global Revision- reexamines and adjusts the documents overall approach. Using genre to sharpen its angle, topic, purpose, thesis and appropriateness for the reader’s context.
2. Substantive Editing- pays attention to the document’s content, organization and design.
3. Copyediting- Focuses on revising the style for clarity, persuasion and consistency, paying close attention to paragraphs and sentences.
4. Proofreading- examines and revises surface features, such as grammatical correctness, spelling, and usage. 5. Level 1 – Revision, Level 2 – Substantive Editing, Level 3 – Copyediting, Level 4 – Proofreading
6. Global issues includes; topic, angle, purpose and thesis statement.
7. Expectations, values, attitudes, physical place, papers medium, social and political influences
8. By doing a substantive Editing process. Does your thesis statement and main claim describe what you’re achieving in your paper? Are your claims in the body of the paper expressed completely and accurately? Could you express them in a more prominent, precise or compelling way? Can you find any places where your ideas need more support or where your thesis and claims need more evidence drawn from sources? Are there any digressions? Can you trim the text down?
9. 1) Does your main ideas prominent enough? If you can move these main idea to places where your readers are most likely to see them? 2) Does your introduction do its job according to the convention of the genre? 3) Does it draw your readers in, introduce them to the topic, state the thesis and main claim, and stress the importance of the subject?
10. Because another person’s feedback and view on your paper can help you improve even more. Recognizing the proposals weaknesses in the content, organization and design.
11. Your title should grab the reader’s attention and the headings in your document should help them quickly grasp your ideas and understand how the document is structured.
12. The writer should ask themselves questions like; is each paragraph unified? Does each sentence in the paragraph stick to a consistent topic? Does any sentences seen to stray from the paragraph’s claim or statement? Does each paragraph logically follow from the paragraph that preceded it and does it prepare readers for the paragraph that follows? If the paragraph is long or complex, would it benefit from a “point sentence” at its end that states or restates the paragraphs overall point? Would a transition sentence at the beginning of the paragraph help make a bridge from prior paragraph?
13. Remove any passive verbs by replacing them with active verbs. Eliminate any unnecessary prepositional phrases. Shorten longer sentences. Keep subjects of your sentences easy to locate.
14. Use vivid detail to help readers see, hear, touch, taste and smell what you’re writing about. Use any similes, metaphors or analogies to help your readers understand or visualize what you are talking about. Use a consistent tome in your sentences. Describe in one word the tone you are trying to set in your paper.
15. Allows you to search for any typos, grammatical errors, spelling mistakes, and work usage problems. Some strategies for proofreading would be using a spell checker, knowing your grammatical weaknesses, and read a hard copy of you work.
16. A phrase fragment fails to be a sentence in the sense that it cannot stand by itself. I see myself having issues with knowing where a sentence should stop or expand. When I talk I don’t think about where I’m pausing and where I may be changing the sentences subject. I just talk in a flow. I don’t think I realize where the pauses may be in a sentence and where I need to be discontinuing a sentence and starting with a new one.
1. Arguments involve making reasonable claims and then backing those claims up with evidence and support. They are used in work, debates, papers, presentations, etc.
2. Personal judgements
3. 1. Issues of Definition, 2. Issues of Causation, 3. Issues of Evaluation, 4. Issues of Recommendation.
4. Find what you want to argue about, pick an arguable claim source, and then you have your sharpened claim.
5. Using Reason (Logos), Authority (Ethos), and Emotion (Pathos).
6. Logos (Reason) involves appealing to your reader’s common sense or beliefs. Ethos (Authority) involves using your own experience or the reputations of others to support your arguments. Pathos (Emotions) uses emotional appeals to persuade your readers is appropriate if the feelings you draw are suitable for your topic and readers.
7. Refers to the concept of making an error in terms of reasoning. It is crucial to understand logical fallacies so that they can be identified and avoided when attempting to persuade.
9. Slippery slope and red herring.
10. The rebuttal is the counterargument to your position. In an argumentative essay, you have to explain the opposition’s point of view, and argue against it, as well as arguing for your own point.
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