What two issues dominated national politics in the 1870s and 1880s?
The money supply and civil-service reform
What happened to James Garfield’s presidency?
It never really got started because he was assassinated soon after coming to office.
Describe voter participation during the late nineteenth century.
It was generally very high––usually from 80 percent up to 95 percent.
Why did the federal government tend to ignore the social consequences of industrialization during the late nineteenth century?
Most American leaders, regardless of party, believed in the laissez-faire doctrine and did not support a large governmental role in the economy.
Where was the Democratic Party strongest in the late nineteenth century?
What is the Bankers: position on the money supply?
limit, because it would create economic stability
What did the civil-service reformers of the late 1870s and early 1880s want?
a civil service staffed by gentlemen who needed nothing and wanted nothing from government except the satisfaction of using their talents.
What were goals of the Greenback party?
What is the tariff policy of the administration of Benjamin Harrison?
A record-high tariff
What did the Pendleton Act do?
It initiated civil-service reform.
Describe the 1884 presidential campaign.
Mugwumps bolted from the Republican Party.
Cleveland admitted he had fathered an illegitimate child.
A clergyman denounced Democrats as the party of “rum, Romanism, and rebellion.”
The Republicans nominated a candidate who “wallowed in spoils like a rhinoceros in an African pool.”
What impact did the McKinley tariff have on tariff rates?
It raised tariffs to the highest levels in American history up until that time.
What was the Grange? AKA the Patrons of Husbandry
It was an organization of farmers that provided social, political and economic support and community
What was the main importance of the government’s establishment of the Interstate Commerce Commission?
It ended the ability of states to regulate railroads within their boundaries.
What was the initial commitment of the farmers’ alliance movement.
The movement initially advocated farmers’ cooperatives and eventually turned to politics.
What did Southern Alliance leader Charles Macune argue?
Farmers should be able to store crops in government warehouses and then borrow against those crops until prices rose.
During the late nineteenth century, what was the relationship between the southern agrarian protest movement and southern attitudes toward blacks?
Some Populists wanted to build an interracial movement and tried to defend the rights of blacks.
Most southern Populists were anti-black but some Populists denounced lynchings and the convict-lease system.
The white elite tried to inflame agrarian racism and stimulate urban black sentiment against agrarian radicalism.
What were the goals of the Populist party?
It wanted the government to nationalize the railroads.
It wanted an increased money supply.
It wanted to elect U.S. senators directly.
It wanted to enact a graduated income tax.
What tools did southern states use to disenfranchise blacks after Reconstruction?
literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clauses, property requirements
In late-nineteenth-century cases dealing with the rights of blacks, what did the Supreme Court decide? What did the Supreme Court argue in Plessy v. Ferguson?
Racial segregation was constitutional as long as each race had equal facilities.
What did the separate but equal doctrine mean?
As long as facilities were equivalent, they did not have to be integrated.
What did Booker T. Washington argue?
That black Americans should work hard, develop personally, and refrain from open rebellion
How were blacks treated in the North during the late nineteenth century?
Public opinion sanctioned widespread de facto discrimination.
In the 1892 election, what happened to the Populist party?
It received over 1 million votes across the nation.
Why did confidence in the gold standard had weakened in the early 1890s?
The flow of gold out of the country
The inflationary policies of the Democrats
A decline in revenue brought about by the high tariff
The collapse of a leading London investment bank
What event triggered the Panic of 1893?
The collapse of a railroad stocks and bonds.
Why was the 1892 election significant to U.S. history?
The Populist party showed it was a potential threat to the Republican and Democratic parties.
Why did Grover Cleveland propose a reduction of the tariff rates?
The tariff was feeding a large and growing federal budget surplus.
What did Coxey’s army want?
A $500 million public-works program funded with paper money
What did the Wilson-Gorman tariff do?
It lowered some duties and made many concessions to protectionists.
It became law without the president’s signature.
It included a tax on income.
What was the main issue in the 1896 presidential election? Free silver
Who became famous for the “Cross of Gold” speech in the 1896 presidential election?
William Jennings Bryan
In the 1896 election, which area was a center of William McKinley’s political
Why is the Currency Act of 1900 significant?
It committed the United States to the gold standard.
In the 1880s and 1890s, why did many Americans argue that the United States should take a more expansionist role in the world?
for the United States to be a great nation, it had to have an empire.
American economic health depended on finding overseas markets for American products.
Americans had a mission to bring Christianity and civilization to the world’s weaker races.
a great nation had to have a great navy, and a great navy needed bases abroad.
How did Josiah Strong influence American imperialism at the end of the 19th century?
asserted that the United States had a moral responsibility to civilize other races.
What were the reasons for the strengthening of American ties to Hawaii in the late nineteenth century?
Both missionary activity and naval activity
sugar plantation expansion and the election of William McKinley.
Who wrote The Influence of Sea Power on History?
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Where did the United States and Germany almost have a naval clash in the late 19th century? Panama
What did the the Teller amendment assert?
The U.S. Congress had no desire for control of Cuba.
How did William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer change the newspaper industry?
They competed for readers by writing sensationalized stories that captured the reader’s attention.
How did the United States deal with Cuba after the Spanish-American War?
It kept American troops in Cuba for a number of years.
It improved public health, education, and sanitation on the island.
It asserted the right to intervene in Cuba when it was necessary.
It established a permanent naval base on the island at Guantanamo Bay.
Who were the American expansionists in the late nineteenth century?
John Hay, Alfred T. Mahan, Henry Cabot Lodge
What happened in the Philippines after the Spanish-American War?
Filipino resistance fighters fought a protracted and bloody guerrilla war against United States rule.
Which of the following was ceded to the United States by Spain as a result of the Spanish-American War? Guam