What Is Philosophy? •Philosophy : The studies of Greco-Roman thinkers on activities and inquiries. It is also the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct. •Philosophy focuses on three main types: •Stoicism •Skepticism •Epicurean •Philosophy consists of these philosophical areas: •Metaphysics •Materialism •Idealism •Epistemology •Empiricism •Rationalism •Ethics •Hedonism •Cynicism Three Main Types Stoicism •Refers to the knowledge of Aristotle o”Mind is a blank state, impressions are made by the 5 senses. ” •Stoics deny the metaphysical points of view.
oReal objects produce intense feelings. oThe body and soul are pairs that act and react to each other. Skepticism •Examines as to what someone should believe- derived from Plato’s schooling •Objections on skepticism: oIts commitment to knowledgeable limitation is nonexistent. oIf knowledge is limited and judgment is not expressed, life is presumed unlivable. Epicurean •Formulated by Epicurus who believed philosophy was studied to make the soul happy. •Happiness created with less wanting of materialistic things and more peace. Philosophical Areas Metaphysics •Branch of philosophy accountable for the study of existence.
oAnswers “what is? ” •The foundation of philosophy oWithout metaphysics, we would not be able to comprehend the world or act accordingly to it. Materialism •Refers to the simple focus of the material world. o”Everything in the universe is matter and matters. ” •The philosophy is held by those who believed that material items are accountable for existence. Idealism •Stresses the central ideal and spiritual interpretations of experiences. oThey believe world exists as a spirit •Two forms: oMetaphysical idealism oEpistemological idealism Epistemology •The investigation of grounds and nature of knowledge of the
world. oFocuses on the knowledge of differences between truths and falsehood. •Fundamental aspect to how we think. Empiricism •Theory of experience as primary source to our knowledge of the world. oLearning through perception. •Classical empiricism oRejection of innate, in-born knowledge and concepts •Radical empiricism oExplains that all our knowledge is derived from our senses. •Moderate empiricism oDescribes the exceptions to general empiristic rules. Rationalism •Philosophical movement that introduced mathematical methods to philosophy.
oCan be understood through mathematical and logical principles, not sensory experiences. Ethics •Branch of philosophy dealing with what is the proper action for humans. oAnswers “What do I do? ” •Requirement for human life, decides course of action. Hedonism •Doctrine that states that all pleasure is naturally acceptable- good for the soul. •Nothing but pleasure is good. Cynicism •Described as a way of life, which consists of asceticism, anti-conformism, and anti-conventionalism. •Basis of cynicism is the virtue of well being and a happy life. Philosophers Socrates •Possibly the wisest sage of all time •Contributions to philosophy: oPithy sayings.
oSocratic method of discussion o”Socratic” irony oSocratic method- saying he knows nothing and that unexamined life is not worth living •Participated in the military during the Peloponnesian War. oCommitted suicide by ingesting poison hemlock. Plato Fun fact: Plato is not his original name- it’s Aristocles, but was later changed to Plato by his teachers •Considered the most important philosopher to have ever lived- father of Idealism. •Thought the human soul contained reason, spirit, and appetite. •Student and follower of Socrates.
•Impacted math, science, morals, and political theories with his Legacy of the Academy schooling. Aristotle •Student of Plato, teacher of Alexander the Great. •Wrote on logic, nature, psychology, ethics, politics, and art. •Developed deductive reasoning. •Basis: Aristotle’s syllogism •Church used Aristotle to explain doctrines in the Middle Ages. Concept of “Prime Element ” •Thales – Attempted to find naturalistic explanations of the world; identified “water” as the ultimate principle. •Pythagoras – Creator of Pythagorean Theorem; believed “earth” was what encompassed all beings.
•Anaximenes – Explained how “air” was universally present and is the source of all that exists.
•Heraclitus – Disagreed with aforementioned philosophers and claimed “fire” was the classical element. •Empedocles – Created the cosmogenic theory that composed of the four classical elements: water, earth, fire, and air. Bibliography •http://www. philosophybasics. com/movements_rationalism. html •http://www. importanceofphilosophy. com/Ethics_Main. html •http://philosophy. lander. edu/ethics/hedonism. html •http://dictionary. reference.
com/browse/philosophy%20? s=t •http://ancienthistory. about. com/cs/people/p/aristotle. htm •http://ancienthistory. about. com/od/platoprofile/p/Plato. htm •http://ancienthistory.
about. com/od/socratesbio/p/Socrates. htm •http://www. historyforkids. org/learn/greeks/philosophy/ •http://webspace. ship. edu/cgboer/athenians. html •http://webspace. ship. edu/cgboer/greeks. html •http://philosophy. gr/ •http://philosophy. gr/hellinistic/cynics. htm •http://www. newworldencyclopedia. org/entry/Greek_philosophy,_A ncient •http://www. livius. org/gi-gr/greeks/philosophers. html •http://www. historyforkids. org/learn/greeks/philosophy/ •http://www. historyforkids. org/learn/philosophy/epicureans. htm •http://www. iep. utm. edu/stoicmind/ •http://www. iep. utm. edu/skepanci/.