As multimedia advances to higher stages of development, the significance of graphic design continues to increase. Graphic design was once considers a visual form of art. Over time, it has come to be recognized as form of communication. Art and communication reflect and serve culture. Culture represents the political and economic structure of the society. Therefore graphic design reflects and promotes political and economic systems.
This paper attempt to show that graphic design, layout design of the poster and artistic craftsmanship of typography are the main communication media that have served different cultures during different historical eras. Graphic design can be defined from many perspectives. For a layman, graphic design may simply refer to the production of printed, online, and manufactured materials that are visually appealing. Graphic design is reproduced in either large numbers or in gigantic media such as billboards so that it can get the attention of many people.
Being a visual instrument of communication, it usually employs an effective combination of graphics and text in order to convey a message. Graphic design is prevalent in both the capitalists and socialist economies. The capitalist use it mainly to sell goods and services while the socialists use it to sell ideas to motivate people to agree with government policies and work for a socialist economy. Whatever the case , the of aim graphic design is to motivate people to act; the information it relays is meant to move people and not just to satisfy the usual thirst for knowledge.
Some people include paintings as graphic design but Barnard in the book, Graphic Design as Communication, denies that this is incorrect. Classical paintings merely tell a story. They are being viewed only in the confines of private homes or museums. They are definitely not for popular consumption. Newark, in the book, The Gutenberg Galaxy, states that the coins found in Apollonia, Greece, which was estimated sometime in 450 BC may be considered the earliest products of graphic design. Because it was a form of currency, it was produced in large numbers.
It has a prototypical logo and it was made with the use of a metal die, a technological wonder at that time. Jobling & Crowley define graphic design in relation to social structures and the historical context in which such structure exists. Graphic design is shaped by certain society’s beliefs and morals. Jobling & Crowley identify three factors that graphic design constitutes the following: It is produced in large numbers; It should be cheap and graphic design conveys ideas through a combination of words and images.
However, Jobling & Crowley argue that not all products of graphic deign are cheap. In fact, some of them are symbolic of wealth and luxury. Newark defines graphic design by focusing on its functions. Graphic design functions as a means of communication. Once the design is able to attract the attention of people, it must be able to explain its message with the minimum use of words, if any. Brand logos explain not only the product but also the quality it possesses. A graphic design becomes the identity of its subject. People begin to relate certain symbols to what they represent.
For example, the elephant symbol becomes the Republican Party. These act on people’s emotions and become factors in determining how they feel the market. Knoblauch points out that communication shapes culture. Culture develops by communication and acceptable interaction by the society. In this regard, since graphic design is a medium of communication, it serves culture as well. It passes through many historical eras and different cultures. This is contrary to the common belief that it is just a product of the modern computer technology.
Technology is a continuous process and so is its evolution. History has shown that human beings had begun communicating through visuals before oral communication grew. McLuhan notes that Gutenberg press is an important stage in the evolution of graphic design. Invented around 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg, it made possible the mass production of literary material. Bibles were the first material to be produced. Gutenberg used a special character symbols which he developed himself to represent words and common Latin phrases.
Gutenberg’s visually attractive typography and lay-out made the Bible more appealing to people, a fact that served well the cultural interests of the Holy Roman Empire . 1700s and 1800s saw further development of graphic design. This was the time that capitalism was developing at a rapid pace. Publishers were in great competition with each other.. Therefore, graphic design was highly improved. At this point came there arose contradictions between publishers and authors. Publishers used graphic design especially on the covers to make it more attractive.
The authors feared that this might change the context of the book. This shows that graphic design can either enhance or destroys the context of the ext. Barchas, J. warns us not to make judgment by looking at the cover of a book since graphic design may convey anther meaning. Graphic design is developing further. The advancement of computer and information technology has made it possible for graphic arts to be blended with other media Graphic design has been used tin advertisement.
Eisend advises that the advertisers have to create graphic design that effectively sells a product. The graphic design must also be able to convince the consumer to buy only the brand that it promotes. Lindstrom notes that many companies are gradually transforming the traditional billboards into audio-visual displays, which appeal to more senses other than just sight. In conclusion, graphic design can either be a factor to encourage the survival of a social system or it can destroy it to introduce a new one. Reference The given research paper
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