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Grammar Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Discussion Questions

· What does communication style mean to you? Describe how your communication style changes depending on who you are communicating with. How does your communication style change with friends, family, classmates, and instructors? What are the key differences between academic and casual communication styles? The communication style means sending messages or message to a person or group in different ways in different situations. Communication style could be straight forward or combination of wording, phrases, facial expressions, and body language/gesture. Our body language can changes depend on the current emotions, situation, and relationship with the other person, and needs of either party. Communication style instantly changes even in family depending on the ages and relationships. For example if I am communicating…

Health and Social Care

People use different ways to communicate with other people, depending on the situation in a health and social care setting. Informal is mostly used between people who know each other very well and formal for individuals who do not know others to well or have not met before. People who are expected to talk in a formal language in a health and social care setting are the care workers. Care workers should ensure they know the difference between the two different conversational languages and use the correct one accordingly. For this essay I will be analysing the two different ways to communicate to people and give examples to why people use these ways to communicate. Formal conversations are mostly used…

Stative Verb and Action Verb

All verbs in English are classified as either stative or action verbs (also referred to as ‘dynamic verbs’). Action verbs describe actions we take (things we do) or things that happen. Stative verbs refer to the way things ‘are’ – their appearance, state of being, smell, etc. The most important difference between stative and action verbs is that action verbs can be used in continuous tenses and stative verbs can not be used in continuous tenses. Action Verbs She’s studying math with Tom at the moment. AND She studies math with Tom every Friday. They’ve been working since seven o’clock this morning. AND They worked for two hours yesterday afternoon. We’ll be having a meeting when you arrive. AND We…

Six Tenses in Regular Verbs

Standard English” is the literary dialect used in formal writing and in the speech of well educated persons. It descends from the West Saxon dialect of Old English, specifically the dialect of London. “Non-standard English” includes many regional dialects, whose grammatical forms and words ( such as ain’t and varmint, for example) are not exactly incorrect but are unsuited to formal discourse; and the non-regional dialect known as Black English ( or Ebonics ) which has a prominent substrate of African grammar. There is another literary dialect called Scots ( or Lallands or Doric ) which is considered non-standard because descends from the Anglic dialect of Old English, not the Saxon. VERBS: Principal Parts The three principal parts of verbs…

Systemic Functional Grammar

Systemic functional grammar (SFG) is a form of grammatical description originated by Michael Halliday. Michael Halliday (born 13 April 1925) is a British linguist who developed the internationally influential systemic functional linguistic model of language. His grammatical descriptions go by the name of systemic functional grammar (SFG). Halliday describes language as a semiotic system, “not in the sense of a system of signs, but a systemic resource for meaning”. For Halliday, language is a “meaning potential”; by extension, he defines linguistics as the study of “how people exchange meanings by ‘languaging’”. Halliday describes himself as a generalist, meaning that he has tried “to look at language from every possible vantage point”, and has described his work as “wander[ing] the highways…

Homonyms and antonyms

“Words identical in form but quite different in their meaning and distribution are called homonyms” [1, 74]. “Homonym is a word that is spelt like another word (or pronounced like it) but which has a different meaning” [2, 464]. The term is derided from Greek “homonymous” (homos – “the same” and onoma – “name”) and thus expresses very well the sameness of name combined with the difference in meaning The traditional formal classification of homonyms is as follows: 1. Homonyms proper which are identical both in sound and spelling, e.g. ball (м’яч) – ball (бал), hail (град) – hail (окликати). 2. Partial homonyms are subdivided into: 1) Homographs which are identical in spelling but different in sound, e.g. bow/bou/(лук)-bow/bau/(ніс корабля),…

Short Cousework on Parts of Speech

I am equally grateful to my lecturer, Madam Wan Ziraiza Binti Raja Wan Ismail because she gave me moral support and guided me regarding the topic in this assignment. She had been very kind and patient while suggesting me the outlines of this short coursework in class and correcting my uncertainties. I would like to thank her from bottom of my heart for her overall supports. Encourage is all important for me. I find myself being deeply indebted and grateful to those who always stand beside and supporting me; my parents and friends. I would like to show my appreciation to all of my fellow friends who are willing to spend their time discussing together about this English assignment in…

20 Rules of Subject Verb Agreement

1. Use verbs that agree with a subject, not with a noun that is part of a modifying phrase or clause between verb and subject: “The pot of eggs is boiling on the stove.” 2. Use singular or plural verbs that agree with the subject, not with the complement of the subject: “My favorite type of movie is comedies,” but “Comedies are my favorite type of movie.” 3. Use singular verbs with singular indefinite pronouns — each, the “-bodies,” “-ones,” and “-things” (anybody, everyone, nothing), and the like: “Neither is correct.” (And, just as in rule number 1, the presence of a modifier is irrelevant: “Neither of them is correct.”) 4. Use plural verbs with plural indefinite pronouns: “Many outcomes…

Focus on the Learner

Task a: Learner’s Background For the purpose of this assignment I chose Feruza, an Eritrean high school graduate. She was born and raised in Eritrea and came to live in Jeddah only five years ago. She studied English in an elementary school in Eritrea and continued studying it in an Eritrean International High School. She is not happy at all with what she has learnt during those years. She explained that during her elementary school years her teachers heavily focused on writing while neglecting speaking. When she continued her learning process here in Jeddah, her high school teachers focused only on speaking but not at the level she was expecting. After completing high school her learning was interrupted and there…

A Brief Look at the Quality of a Translation

Abstract The article is an evaluative work on a translation of Faulkner’s Sanctuary by Farhad Qebraii. To do so the standard norms are got from Blum Kulka’s article “shifts of cohesion and coherence in translation” and the level of accepted changes through the translation is considered. The translation by Qebraii is accepted as a qualified one based on the factors analyzed through the paper. Introduction Through the process of translation some changes occur within the form (Surface Structure) and the meaning components (Deep Structure) of the source text. These changes are considered to be inevitable in translation. Due to the differences in the grammatical structures and linguistic features of languages there seem a logical reason for such a phenomenon ….

Teaching Cohesion in Translation

Introduction Language is an expression of culture and individuality of its speakers. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. This principle has a far-reaching implication fro translation. If language influences thought and culture, it means that ultimate translation is impossible. The opposite point of view, however, gives another perspective. Humboldt’s “inner” and “outer” forms in language and Chomsky’s “deep” and “surface” structures imply that ultimate translation is anyhow possible. ( Yule,1988:27) Linguistically, translation is a branch of applied linguistics, for in the process of translation the translator consistently makes any attempt to compare and contrast different aspects of two languages to find the equivalents. Translation, involving the transposition of thoughts expressed in one language by one social group…

Translation Project

Jean-Paul Vinay and Jean Darbelnet in their book Stylistique Comparee du Francaiset de l’ Anglais (1958) which is a comparative stylistic analysis of the different translation strategies and procedures used in French and English view equivalence-oriented translation as a procedure which ‘replicates the same situation as in the original, whilst using completely different wording’ They also suggest that, if this procedure is applied during the translation process, it can maintain the stylistic impact of the SL text in the TL text. With regard to equivalent expressions between language pairs, Vinay and Darbelnet claim that they are acceptable as long as they are listed in a bilingual dictionary as ‘full equivalents’. They talk about ‘direct’ and ‘oblique’ translation where ‘direct’ refers to…

Translation Techniques

Borrowing Borrowing is the taking of words directly from one language into another without translation. Borrowed words are often printed in italics when they are considered to be “foreign”. E.g. Cafeteria كافيتريا – supermarket سوبر ماركيت – play station بلاي ستيشين – lorry لوري – android اندرويد Calque. A calque or loan translation is a phrase borrowed from another language and translated literally word-for-word. E.g. Antibiotic مضاد حيوي – state university جامعة حكومية – brain drain هجرة الادمغه – sacrificial lamb كبش فداء – Poet Laureate امير الشعراء Literal Translation. A word-for-word translation can be used in some languages and not others dependent on the sentence structure. In literal translation, the denotative meaning of words is taken as if straight…

Equivalence in Translation

Professionally, however, the term translation is | |confined to the written, and the term interpretation to the spoken (Newmark, 1991: 35). If confined to a written language, translation is a | |cover term with three distinguishable meanings: 1) translating, the process (to translate; the activity rather than the tangible object), 2)| |a translation: the product of the process of translating (e. g. the translated text), and 3) translation: the abstract concept which | |encompasses both the process of translating and the product of that process Bell (1991: 13). The term ‘translation’ used and discussed | |throughout this paper is confined to the written language, and refers to both the product and process of translating. | | | |The definitions of…

I Stand Here Ironing

“I Stand Here Ironing”, is the story about a mother telling moments of her daughter life to social worker, or someone important. The story starts off with someone asking the question of why the mother is not too involved in her daughter life. Ms. Olsen the author of this story does not do the best job of explaining just what is going on in the daughter, “Susan’s” life. A lot of the story seems to shift so frequently that it is often hard to tell what is going on. Or seems to present the facts in away that the reader just has a hard time understanding her perspective. Another problem with mistake that Ms. Olsen seems to make with the…

Audit Consultant

The Science of Scientific Writing If the reader is to grasp what the writer means, the writer must understand what the reader needs George D. Gopen and Judith A. Swan* *George D. Gopen is associate professor of English and Director of Writing Programs at Duke University. He holds a Ph. D. in English from Harvard University and a J. D. from Harvard Law School. Judith A. Swan teaches scientific writing at Princeton University. Her Ph. D. , which is in biochemistry, was earned at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Address for Gopen: 307 Allen Building, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706 Science is often hard to read. Most people assume that its difficulties are born out of necessity, out of the…

Eight C’s of Effective Communication

Almost every text on writing or speaking skills lists a set of criteria that can be used to judge the effectiveness of a document or presentation. If this list of words, all beginning with the letter C, helps you remember some of the criteria for good writing, the technique of alliteration has worked. If, however, this list leaves you cold, create your own list, but remember to retain the concept of each C-word in your newly created list. |Clear |This is the most important C-word. If your reader cannot understand what you are trying to say | | |or if he/she has to reread a section of your document, you have failed to communicate. | | |Choose simple words/sentences—this is…

Linguistic Performance and Competence

Linguistic Knowledge Speakers’ linguistic knowledge permits them to form longer and longer sentences by joining sentences and phases together or adding modifiers to a noun. whether you stop at three, five or eighteen adjectives, it is impossible to limit the number you could add if desired. Very long sentences are theoretically possible, but they are highly improbable. Evidently, there is a difference between having the knowledge necessary to produce sentences of a language, and applying this knowledge. It is a difference between what you know, which your linguistic competence is, and how you use this knowledge in actual speech production and comprehension, which is your linguistic performance. Linguistic Performance Linguistic Performance – a speaker’s actual use of language in real situations;…

Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis

There are around 5000 languages in use today, and each is quite different from many of the others. Many thinkers have urged that large differences in language lead to large differences in experience and thought. They hold that each language embodies a worldview, which speakers of different languages think about the world in quite different ways. At first I didn’t really understood what was being said, and I was really against it, but after asking myself, really? Knowing a different amount of words to describe things would allow us to better understand and communicate, interesting than as we started the color activity it became clear to me. Then immediately I started making connections to friends of mines form other foreign…

Stylistics: Linguistics and Expressive Means

Newspaper style. includes informative materials: news in brief, headlines, ads, additional articles. But not everything published in the paper can be included in N.S. we mean publicist essays, feature articles, scient. Reviews are not N.S. to attract the readers attention special means are used by british & am. Papers ex: specific headlines, space ordering. We find here a large proportion of dates, personal names of countries, institutions, individuals. To achieve an effect of objectivity in rendering some fact or event most of info is published anonymously, without the name of newsman who supplied it, with little or no subjective modality. But the position of the paper becomes clear from the choice not only of subj. matter but also of words…

Linguistics and Oral Approach

Welcome Googler! If you find this page useful, you might want to subscribe to the RSS feed for updates on this topic. You were searching forPosts relating to “English oral oral approach”. See posts relating to your search »« Hide related posts • Situational Language Teaching (Oral Approach) The Oral Approach or Situational Language Teaching is an approach developed by British applied linguists in the 1930s to the… • Grammar Translation Method History The Grammar Translation Method is an old method which was originally used to teach dead languages which explains why it… • Introducing yourself and family members This is an activity that will help students develop both the vocabulary related to “family” and the ability to… • Persuasive…

Properties of Language, According to Linguistics

Language, we use it everyday, but what exactly defines “language? ” Are there generalizations to be made of all languages? Does everyone learn language same way? What are the rules of language? “What is Language? ” by Neil Smith and Deirdre Wilson answers these questions and more by highlighting the three major theories of modern linguistics. The first modern linguistic theory claims that language is govern by grammar and that grammar is a set of rules with two functions: identifying possible sentences in a given language and dictate the pronunciation & meaning of a sentence in a given language. The first function provides fluent speakers the ability to understand every conceivable sentence in their language even if they never heard…

Ashlyfive point linguistic star

We’ve allowed a natural approach to language instruction to dominate our schools, hoping our English learners “will just figure it out. ” (SCOE, 2009) This approach suggested by Kevin Clark proposes that teachers explicitly teach ELL by giving them a set of skills. Teacher will have to teach students not just vocabulary, but the sound system of language, the words and their word parts and meanings, and also rules for structuring sentences grammatically. Teaching students from this perspective can support a deeper understanding of the language. When the concept is thoroughly supported by background knowledge, explanation as to why, activities that strengthen skills, and consistency in lesson structure that follows this pattern, students are more likely to understand the concept and…

Linguistics and Words

1. Stylistics as a science. Branches of stylistics. Stylistics is a branch of general linguistics. It has mainly with two tasks: Stylistics – is regarded as a lang-ge science which deals with the results of the act of communication. There are 2 basic objects of stylistics: -stylistic devices and figures of speech -functional styles Branches of stylistics: – Lexical stylistics – studies functions of direct and figurative meanings, also the way contextual meaning of a word is realized in the text. L. S. deals with various types of connotations – expressive, evaluative, emotive; neologisms, dialectal words and their behavior in the text. – Grammatical stylistics – is subdivided into morphological and syntactical Morphological s. views stylistic potential of grammatical categories…

Mathematics and Linguistics

How is Mathematics and Linguistics related with each other? Linguistics is the science of language. Linguists seek to understand the proper uses of natural human language. How languages are structured, how and why they vary and change, how they are acquired, and how people, in communicating use them. Mathematics on the other hand is the language of science. It is used to understand areas as diverse as the structure of DNA and the motions of planets. Mathematics abstracts the fundamental issue at the heart of an example, frequently finding connections with other, initially contradictory problems. Language is a universal theory. Everyone uses language as a form of communication. This is the same in Mathematics. Math, like linguistics can be broken down…

Schools of linguistics

The science of human language Language is the subject matter of linguistics What is language? SET /REPERTOIRE TOOL MEANS OF INTERACTION KINESICS FLEXIBLE Creative Rule-governed Arbitrary Discrete To acquire Fully-fledged Sound /Phonetics /Phonology Word/Morphology Sentence/Syntax Meaning/Semantics Tacitly Gender Breach Finite set of rules / infinite Linguist To be under oath NEOLOGISM GURU SCHOOLS OF LINGUISTICS School /Trend /Approach /Frame of Thinking Principles / Underpinnings The History of Linguistics is split into : a.Before a science b.After a science Before it was established as a science ( a human science)Linguistics was in fact ‘ Traditional Grammar’. Traditional Grammar: Prescriptive Traditional Grammarians Manuals of Rules of Prescription THE GREEKS The 5th century BC The dominance of Philosophy All academic disciplines were considered…

Linguistic Research

When does language begin? In the middle 1960s, under the influence of Chomsky’s vision of linguistics, the first child language researchers assumed that language begins when words (or morphemes) are combined. (The reading by Halliday has some illustrative citations concerning this narrow focus on “structure. ”) So our story begins with what is colloquially known as the “two-word stage. ” The transition to 2-word utterances has been called “perhaps, the single most disputed issue in the study of language development” (Bloom, 1998). A few descriptive points: Typically children start to combine words when they are between 18 and 24 months of age. Around 30 months their utterances become more complex, as they add additional words and also affixes and other…

Tutorial Linguistic

I. Linguistics analysis Linguistic Pitfalls aims at settling some problems of sentence meaning by identifying what problems there is. – Meaning-Incompleteness(闕義): lack of reference point (parameter), and the sentence meaning becomes incomplete. – Ambiguity(歧義): more than one meaning in an expression, and the context cannot show which meaning it refers to. – Vagueness(含混): some relative terms does not have a clear-cut boundary, and the expression becomes trivial. – Reification(實化): an abstract name is used as concrete name, and it may arouses confusion. – Colored Expression(著色): a situation is described by emotive terms without reason or explanations – Idiosyncratic Sense(癖義): use an abnormal meaning without explanation or announcement Whether it commits linguistic pitfalls, we have to identify if it offenses the…

Linguistics and Sociolinguistics

It is dif? cult to see adequately the functions of language, because it is so deeply rooted in the whole of human behaviour that it may be suspected that there is little in the functional side of our conscious behaviour in which language does not play its part. Sapir (1933) Language is a complicated business. In everyday talk, we use the word ‘language’ in many different ways. It isn’t clear how ‘language’ should be de? ned or what the person on the street thinks it actually is! We talk about how miraculously a child’s ‘language’ is developing but how they make charming ‘grammar mistakes’, like me maden that instead of ‘I made that’. Here, language is an ability that is…

Corpus Linguistics

Introduction This paper includes information about corpus linguistics, its connection with lexicology and translation. The latter is the most important one and I am keen on finding and introducing something which is mainly connected with my future profession. Frankly speaking that was not an easy journey but I am hopeful it is destined to be successful. A corpus is an electronically stored collection of samples of naturally occurring language. Most modern corpora are at least 1 million words in size and consist either of complete texts or of large extracts from long texts. Usually the texts are selected to represent a type of communication or a variety of language; for example, a corpus may be compiled to represent the English…