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Grade 9 Geography Exam Review Essay

Geography Exam Review
Grade 9

1) Unit 1- Introduction to Geography
a) What is Geography?
* Geography is the study of the Earth’s physical and human systems/features and the relationships among them. * Physical Features: rivers, mountains, etc.
* Human Features: buildings, cities, etc.

b) The Five Themes of Geography
* Location (Absolute and Relative)
* Absolute and relative locations are 2 ways of describing the positions of the Earth’s physical and cultural features. * Ex: Mogadishu, Somalia, is at 2 degrees north latitude, 45 degrees east longitude.

* Place (Physical and Human Characteristics)
* All places on Earth have special features that distinguish them from other places. * Ex: Lake Baikal is 25 million years old, more than one mile wide, and contains 1/5 of the Earth’s fresh water.

* Human-Environment Interactions (Relationships Within Places) * People interact with their environment and change them in different ways. * Ex: 90% of America’s garbage is buried in landfill sites, the cheapest option to waste disposal.

* Movement (Mobility of People, Goods, and Ideas)
* How things move from one place to another (information, objects, people) * Ex: AIDS is believed to have started in equatorial Africa. It has been transmitted to other parts of the world via tourists, immigrants, and military personnel.

* Regions (How They Form and Change)
* Regions are areas on the surface of the Earth that are defined by certain unifying characteristics. * Ex: Mexico and Germany are subdivided
into states; Canada and France call their subdivisions provinces.

c) Mapping
* What is a Map?
* A map is a representation of the Earth’s features drawn on a flat surface.

* Types of Maps
* General Purpose Map
* Provides many types of information on one map.
* Ex: Water, roads, railways, lines, parks.

* Thematic Maps
* Shows specific information about one particular topic.
* Ex: Canada’s populations, Canada’s wonderland.

* Topographic Maps
* Shows a variety of features of land.
* Ex: Mountains, rivers, landforms.

* Large Scale Maps
* Shows a large amount of detail of a small area.
* Ex: Cities, towns, residential communities.

* Small Scale Maps
* Shows a small amount of detail of a large area.
* Ex: Countries, continents.

* Map Requirements (BOLTSS)
* B= Border
* To keep map within boundaries

* O= Orientation
* Shows direction

* L= Legend
* So people know what colours/symbols mean

* T= Title
* What your map shows

* S= Scale
* Shows distance on a map compared to real life distances

* S= Source
* To show where info is from

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