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Globalization: Has it helped Muslim women to gain education? Essay

The definition of globalization is the integration of world economies into one through increased communication, technology and the elimination of the quota-system and other trade barriers resulting in a global market of buyers and sellers (Najam, Runnals, & Halle, 2006). Aim of Paper This paper will be discussing how actually globalization has contributed towards the improvement in the situation of Muslim women in seeking education. The historical evolution of the status of Women

Ancient Practices Sons used to inherit their fathers’ wives and women-trade was always a profitable business for merchants all across the Roman Empire during the 15th and 16th centuries. Evolution and Today This change process took decades and today American and European countries can accurately declare that women living there are free from implied prejudice and partiality. Muslim Women’s status However the change process for Muslim women has not been either so complete or so swift.

Even today there are several regions where the treatment of women is deeply rooted in ignorant beliefs and values. Globalization: Behind the scenes How Globalization helped? Globalization led to the creation of awareness, self-actualization and increased commitment and cooperation resulting in more schools, colleges and universities being built. Education Education, as a result of globalization, resulted in the reality crashing upon the heads of the people who were rooted earlier in ignorance and blind faith. Technology

Technology has been one of the most important reasons behind the improvement of womens’ conditions in terms of education. Women confined to the four walls of houses have been able to benefit from the use of technology and gain education. Example of Malaysia Malaysia today boasts of a modernized society where women are empowered and enjoy equal status rights as men. Conclusion Globalization has been a major player in provoking the exposure of the false ideological practices of “Islamic” men who used religion as the tool to keep themselves one step further of women in all areas.

The advent of media coverage and social groups’ involvement in the countries where Muslim women were forced into ignorance has led to education being spread to them. Bibliography Introduction Globalization is a process that has been inherent in the society ever since mankind began moving around in search of food on Earth. The realization that globalization is a major phenomenon that has brought about several changes in the lives of people was quite late. The reason behind this was also logical.

Globalization in the past was not as accelerated as it has been since the past three to four decades. Things globalized at a much inflated rate during the post-1950s than they did before that (Najam, Runnals, & Halle, 2006). The definition of globalization is the integration of world economies into one through increased communication, technology and the elimination of the quota-system and other trade barriers resulting in a global market of buyers and sellers (Najam, Runnals, & Halle, 2006).

Though the advantages and disadvantages of globalization are altogether another issue, one thing is certain: it has assisted Muslim women in breaking the vicious circle of false religious ideologies and helped them in gaining education. Though, most of the time, laws have been bent through interpretation loopholes in the religion to safeguard the interests of men and to maintain a level of supremacy over women. This practice has been challenged over the years by social activists and women rights campaigners but the cries have fallen on deaf years.

Several incidents and events have occurred corroborating the fact that globalization has helped Muslim women in advancing towards knowledge and education (“Who Speaks for Islam? Who Speaks for the West? The Impact of Globalization on the Muslim World. ”, 2006). This paper will be discussing how actually globalization has contributed towards the improvement in the situation of Muslim women in seeking education. The historical evolution of the status of Women Ancient Practices One of the most blatant truths of mankind is the fact that religious constraints and masculine dominance have always been dominant over women.

From the times of the pre-historic man to the times of renaissance, women were always considered to be a kind of commodity to be owned by men and used as per their will. Sons used to inherit their fathers’ wives and women-trade was always a profitable business for merchants all across the Roman Empire during the 15th and 16th centuries. The United Kingdom too was no exception to the treatment (or rather lack of it) towards women; women were not allowed to vote or take part in the government till as late as the 18th century. However, things gradually began to change in the European countries and USA.

People began to realize the equality of men and women and from there began the actualization movements to provide equal statuses to men and women and to eradicate gender discrimination. Evolution and Today Today in most developed nations, the concept of gender discrimination is smirked at, women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men and are entitled to the same treatment. This change process took decades and today American and European countries can accurately declare that women living there are free from implied prejudice and partiality (Muzaffar, 2009).

Muslim Women’s Status However the change process for Muslim women has not been either so complete or so swift. Even today there are several regions where the treatment of women is deeply rooted in ignorant beliefs and values. Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Iran, Iraq and Malaysia have the largest populations of Muslims in the world. The rights of women in these countries are highly influenced by Islam. Islamic principles and shariah law have been the foundations upon which the rights of men, women and society have been drafted.

Globalization: Behind the scenes Religious ideologies and Islamic misinterpretations have long denied women their fundamental rights of education and independence in non-secular countries – examples include the tribal areas of Afghanistan; Pakistan; extremist areas in Kashmir, Central India and Gujrat; Saudi Arabia; Morocco and Kenya. On one pretext or the other men have used Islam as the sword (without realizing that Islam has no such injunctions) to cut short the rights of women in a modern world.

How Globalization Helped? However globalization has been the silent factor providing empowerment to women across the globe and granting them access to education. Globalization changed the international alignment of businesses bringing about more foreign direct investment and joint collaborations. Women in states where Islam was cited as the keystone governing all their behavior and rights found that globalization resulted in exposure of the maltreatments against them.

Media and foreign activists have initiated several campaigns in Afghanistan and Pakistan in the past decade (some of them being as a result of 9/11 influx). The revelation of the actual state of women in these troubled areas led to federal control and social activists’ involvements in these areas. These groups developed schools, colleges, abolished the previous customs and illicit practices in the shroud of religion and made sure that the sanctity of women was upheld (Muzaffar, 2009).

The major role of globalization was the increased integration of regional economies which made dependency and mutuality inevitable for countries and regions within. Countries could no longer remain aloof of the international market as globalization brought them closer together in terms of social, economic, political and cultural dependence (Apple, Kenway, & Singh, 2005). The major hand of globalization in helping Muslim women develop education was the spread of education itself.

Globalization led to the creation of awareness, self-actualization and increased commitment and cooperation resulting in more schools, colleges and universities being built. In countries like Malaysia and Pakistan, the number of universities grew with great pace over the past twenty years. Though the change in ideology and Islamic understanding was not visible in the tribal areas of Pakistan due to ignorance and lack of integration with federal rule, Malaysia today boasts of a modernized society where women are empowered and enjoy equal status rights as men.

The illusion that Islam confines women to within the household was a widely held belief in such nations and is still today the chief limiting factor for the development of women in Pakistan’s tribal areas (Hassan, 2006). Education Education, as a result of globalization, resulted in the reality crashing upon the heads of the people who were rooted earlier in ignorance and blind faith. The “muftis” and sermon-givers of Islam who hardly possessed enough knowledge to save their own skins propagated misleading Islamic “fatwas” relating to the rights of women forcing them into confinement and imposing undue restrictions over them.

However, globalization increased the synergy between different educated and learned men and women of Islam bringing about a correction of faith, ideas and beliefs. Thus, several hundred schools and colleges have been built for the education and counseling of women in rural Afghanistan and Pakistan. Women from backward areas have been able to move ahead with the advent of globalization through increased opportunities and exposure to people who are willing to work towards the uplift of women (Maisami, 2003).

A secondary effect of globalization that helped women progress was the increased need for skilled labor and competition. Since the tariff system was done away with by the World Trade Organization (WTO) reforms, sellers found that overnight they had lost their competitive advantage – now buyers could select from an international market and choose the lowest prices without trade restrictions. This brought a desire for competition amongst the medium-sized sellers and growth amongst the large sellers. The small fishes could not do much as survival was a zero possibility for them.

Thus, women were required to bring in expertise and newer ideas in some of the medium sized businesses in the developing nations. Fuelled by this demand, more and more women found opportunities knocking on their doors and calling them towards empowerment. Though there is not much literature available to support this phenomenon, I believe that my interaction with friends in Pakistan has given me a fair idea of the reality of this happening (Muzaffar, 2006). Evidence Technology has been one of the most important reasons behind the improvement of womens’ conditions in terms of education.

Women confined to the four walls of houses have been able to benefit from the use of technology and gain education. Determination and courage leads to success – it has been so in the case for women who have broken their jinx and acquired education only through the use of Internet. These women have been the ones whose parents and husbands have not been extremists, thus allowing them the use of technologies such as the Internet. Otherwise, in 99% of the non-secular areas, technology is abhorred as much as Western contact and modernization (Hassan, 2006).

Modernization, according to the extremists is “wearing jeans, using a mobile phone and speaking in English”. People with such mindsets have been severe impediments for their women in the path to acquiring education. Evidence Malaysian women are one of the most progressive sect of Muslim women across the globe. Their modesty or integrity has not changed – most women still follow the “hijab” which is customary to ensure modesty in women – however, their approach to life has transformed greatly.

Working alongside men and performing chores which even today is thought of to be “a man’s job” in most backward Muslim regions, Malaysian women display the true sense of how globalization has assisted them in overpowering false Islamic ideologies built and propagated in the name of religion only to bring shame to it (Altwaijri, 2006). Conclusion Globalization has been a major player in provoking the exposure of the false ideological practices of “Islamic” men who used religion as the tool to keep themselves one step further of women in all areas.

The advent of media coverage and social groups’ involvement in the countries where Muslim women were forced into ignorance has led to education being spread to them. The times of forced ignorance and support from misleading “mullahs” on the part of Muslim men trying to oppress women is now a matter of confinement to the areas which are still not much in contact with the rest of the world. Globalization has thereof been a major contributor to the ease with which Muslim women have been able to gain access to education.

Without the advent of globalization, communication and technological barriers would have had kept Muslim women stagnant and at bay. It has been the increasing inter-mingling of international communities which has given Muslim women the opportunity to move ahead with the rest of the world. In conclusion, globalization forces will continue to provide more opportunities for Muslim women to gather education and break the barriers of religious idealism that have long kept their talent within the limits of their houses (Mirjana, 2006).

Bibliography Altwaijri, Abdulaziz Othman. “The Islamic World and Globalization. ” ISESCO. Org. 26 July 2008 <http://www. isesco. org. ma/english/publications/Islamtoday/21/P1. php>. The above reference was quite relvant to the topic of how globalization affects the Islamic world. The basic effects were used and then the impact upon Muslim women was easier to build up upon. Hassan, R. (2006). Islam in the Area of Globalization. Globalization, modernity and identity ar fundamental issues in contemporary Islam and Islamic Studies. , 175-189.

This article discusses the major issues and complexes that Muslim men hold against women so that their behavior has been very aggressive and has led to oppression of women. Maisami, Mona. “Islam and Globalization. ” The Fountain. July-September 2003. 27 July 2008 Very helpful in documenting the issues that were removed through globalization. Discusses to a certain extent the women issues as well. Mirjana Radovi, M. (2006). The Perspective of Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Age of Globalization. Information Age Publishing , 3-14.

This article was a snapshot of the whole document which provided the women issues and how globalization impacts women in gaining education. Muzaffar, Chandra. “Globalization and Religion: Some Reflections. ” ReadingIslam. com. 29 June 2002. 9 May 2009 This article discusses the religious ideologies that have been cited as reasons for limiting the movement of women and keeping them from growing independent. Apple, M. W. ; Kenway, J. ; & Singh, M. (Eds. ). (2005). Globalizing Education: Policies, Pedagogies and Politics. New York: Peter Lang.

The typical Muslim mentality regarding the independence and education of women is discussed in detail which helps in building up a nice conclusion. “Who Speaks for Islam? Who Speaks for the West? The Impact of Globalization on the Muslim World. ” New York University’s Dialogues: Islamic World-U. S. -The West. 10-11 February 2006. 24 July 2008 <http://islamuswest. org/publications_islam_and_the_West /Who_Speaks_For_Islam/Who-Speaks-For-Islam_05. html>. The most relevant article for this topic which provided the largest literature review on the topic.


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