Globalization can be seen as a new phase of internationalization of forcing companies and countries reciprocally depend on degrees in the past. Here you can have globalization as the third phase of the internationalization of markets, the first of these phases properly called internationalization, ranging from late nineteenth century to the First World War, in which no economic sovereignty and international exchange – and the second phase of Globalization, which runs from the end of World War II until about seventy years, time in which multinational companies begin to operate on a truly global basis (Peter, 2006).
With the globalization of the modern world, businesses and government entities are forced to confront their results beyond its borders, in the fields of production quality and public administration, being necessary to rethink traditional management schemes within organizations. High competition forces that improve the quality of products and services and modernize the processes required must necessarily create a culture of modernity and innovation, on the staff of the entities in the public and private sector.
The goal of globalization is no longer penetration neighboring market, but world trade, and standardizing it is the best instrument to achieve new trade realities. Thus, this brings to light what is public administration, since it is closely linked to what is trade and market.
Administrators agree perceive the organizational environment as uncertain and turbulent of increasing complexity, and draw attention to the shape or style of thinking required to address more effectively the change phenomena. At present, the intensity and speed of global changes in the economic and social environment determines the need to know in advance the direction you point these changes and megatrends. The major changes are slow to form and once installed, its influence is felt for a long time in individuals and organizations.
In terms of some management specialists, the adaptability of the organization and therefore their ability to survive depends on its ability to learn and act upon the changeable environmental conditions. In understanding the phenomena that affect the public-private sphere, the State-Society is the major element in understanding the context in which hatch and informational processes and flows of the social world are developed.
The State in its historic role as sociopolitical computer centralizer actions and decisions of socio-economic and cultural development of a country, is characterized by being constituted by institutional relevance actors: political parties and groups, trade unions, universities, media communication, among others, all active and engaged in the debate of major national issues participants. In this context, information channels are open and thus in the debate and discussion agendas are present from major structural changes to the discussion of basic problems of society, creating an interaction between all actors identified (Peters, 2001).
From the change in the political system two elements characterize the new process: the role of the state comes into question, and the discussion focuses on the redefinition of it. Moreover, the market emerges as a new player with that also produces a redefinition of public-private relationships. The private sector breaks into many fields hitherto proprietary state action, the most notorious health, education and social security, resulting in double circuits of information: public and private. Radical changes in the early affect state-society relations are produced. The state is directing its own administrative decentralization process and starts a new institutional framework.
All these situations create new information flows in new directions and to new target groups. Centralized information becomes part of the State surpassed role. The legitimacy of the information is questionable and of course the reliability of it is also debatable. However, the changes that occur within the state and therefore in society begin to produce positive impacts on productivity levels, service efficiency, technological upgrade that streamlines the bureaucratic processes and a series of other events in the reformulation of the role of the state is designated as a profound reshaping of the state apparatus and at the same time, a substantial improvement of the State, as being able to regulate the production and processing of lead in achieving social equity.
_Changes in Management Due to Globalization_
Within this perspective comes hard on the concept of intelligence, applied to the social field in general as well as to a particular organization. Concept defined as the ability to understand and even anticipate the behavior of the various environmental factors that affect or influence negatively or positively the development of a program or project.
This advance knowledge is a prerequisite for organizing and planning the activities of organizations and individuals, in order to anticipate, minimize or neutralize impact or influence of changes in the internal activities of the organization and its relations with the surrounding frame of reference . Some organizations have the ability to adapt quickly to change, naturally occurring in the joints between the various work areas. It allows them to survive in the turbulent environment, among other conditions, your creativity or ability to conceive and imagine alternatives and new solutions beyond the traditional frames or thought patterns (Farazmand, 2012).
The organization ceases to be regarded as a mechanism and tends to be conceived as a living organism, endowed with intelligence. In this context we can speak of a corporate intelligence internally structure the organizations and allows them to react to changes in their environment also based on the use of information. Such organizations, also known as the third type–enterprises, the authors G. Archier and H Serieyx have the following characteristics:
Be constantly alert to events in the environment.
Have organizational structures and rules that ensure flexibility and speed of adaptation.
Individuals and groups articulate the organization and contribute to their full potential.
Each member of the organization is constantly exposed to market pressures and customer expectations.
The organization’s projects are conceived, shared and accepted by all members of the organization.
The work structures are focused on problems without choking the hierarchy.
The organization ensures each official smart, useful, challenging work, also investing in the continuing education of staff.
_Productive Transformation Process_
The marked acceleration of scientific and technological change brings many challenges in the economic field, the need for flexibility from the production system to make competitive adjustments, to expand trade by way of differentiation. Each country must seek to create in the international market its own space on the basis of new technologies (Farazmand, 2004).
In the field of production of goods and services, the world is in one of the greatest moments of innovation and change, based on the knowledge-defined as the most expensive of the products of the modern era. Knowledge management supported by advances in information, computing and communications, offers possibilities of radical change, creating opportunities for new technologies, competitiveness, new markets.
In the public sector, production processes undergo changes to adapt to the new demands generated by the private sector in those areas in which the State assumed key roles in development. The scope, variety and extent of the changes, which are generated in the information sector, the new organizational paradigms, should trigger an intensive process of studies and research in the area, so as to make the necessary adjustments in the production processes of information current and / or, when necessary, to design new components in these processes (James Van, 2004).
Oriented training human resources policy focuses on the essential aspects of productive transformation: growth and equity. The training of human resources in this context should also increase productivity, support worker flexibility to adapt to the changing needs of the productive sector. Technology policy should aim at strengthening the productive transformation policies and strengthen national and regional innovation system. Must be well integrated with the industrial, agricultural, educational and trade policy. You can achieve your goals if a suitable economic and social environment, since the innovation process has a systemic character and requires several interrelated elements.
The strategic dialogue, as proposed by ECLAC, comprises a set of explicit and implicit reaching agreements between the state and the main political and social actors around the productive transformation with equity, and also about the consequences policy and institutional innovations needed to achieve it. The economic transformation strategy posed ECLAC is conceived as part of the conditions of the international economy in the outer and maintaining macroeconomic stability, development financing, maintaining social cohesion and consolidation of democratic processes within (Gareth, 1988).
_Transforming the Work Environment_
Associated with global changes in the organizational structures should be considered external factors: economic, social, political, technological and other as competition, labor market, etc. Such administrative language in examining the opportunities and threats presented by the environment to the organization and its members, comprising also analyze the implications that the forces of change are internal work processes in the organization. The work environment is undergoing major changes due to the impact of external factors among other aspects of the new objectives that organizations are posed by the internationalization of the same, the transition from production companies to utilities, the need for human resources in technologies, by increasing interrelationships of public and private sector, etc.
It is argued that the technological revolution affects the levels of employment, working conditions and social organization and the application of computer science, robotics and other automation involving a small group of overspecialized workers and a large number of unqualified workers. However, the forces of change can also arise within the organization or individuals that compose themselves. The work environment of the organization is under pressure from those who want change and those who oppose tenaciously (Robert, 2009). The organization must adapt or fundamentally change strategies and plans created for different situations and contexts.
In this scenario, the training of human resources is a must for the new management style component. Learning new technologies and developing new skills conducive to the efficient performance of individuals can not be absent from any policy to improve the work environment. While it is not the intent of this document describe enter multiple situations affecting the organizational structure and respective management approaches in solving problems, mainstreaming workplace transformation aims to support the understanding of the issues new organizational forms, examining the competitive environment, adaptation to the new, the educational needs of human resources and the occurrence of the information sector in all strategies of the organization.
Globalisation has catalysed the need to accelerate public sector reforms in developing countries and the need to set up correctly-working institutions. The time is ripe for reform. The challenge will be to adapt the model to different social, economic, political, legal and cultural contexts.
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Farazmand (2004). “Innovation in Strategic Human Resource Management: Building Capacity in the Age of Globalization.” _Public Organization Review_ 4 (1): 3-24.
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