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Globalisation essay Essay

Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.[1][2] Advances intransportation and telecommunicationsinfrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.[3]Though several scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European age of discoveryand voyages to the New World. Some even trace the origins to the third millennium BCE.[4][5] In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectedness of the world’s economies and cultures grew very quickly.The term globalization has been in increasing use since the mid-1980s and especially since the mid-1990s.

[6] In 2000, the International Monetary Fund(IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization:trade and transactions, capital and investmentmovements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge.[7] Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water, air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization.[8]Globalizing processes affect and are affected bybusiness and work organization, economics,socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment.

Archaic globalization is seen as a phase in thehistory of globalization conventionally referring to globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly 1600. This term is used to describe the relationships between communities and states and how they were created by the geographical spread of ideas and social norms at both local and regional levels.[22]In this schema, three main prerequisites are posited for globalization to occur.

The first is the idea of Eastern Origins, which shows how Western states have adapted and implemented learned principals from the East.[22] Without the traditional ideas from the East, Western globalization would not have emerged the way it did. The second is distance. The interactions amongst states were not on a global scale and most often were confined to Asia, North Africa, the Middle East and certain parts of Europe.

[22] With early globalization it was difficult for states to interact with others that were not within close proximity. Eventually, technological advances allowed states to learn of others existence and another phase of globalization was able to occur. The third has to do with interdependency, stability and regularity. If a state is not depended on another then there is no way for them to be mutually affected by one another. This is one of the driving forces behind global connections and trade; without either globalization would not have emerged the way it did and states would still be dependent on their own production and resources to function.

This is one of the arguments surrounding the idea of early globalization. It is argued that archaic globalization did not function in a similar manner to modern globalization because states were not as interdependent on others as they are today.[22]Also posited is a ‘multi-polar’ nature to archaic globalization, which involved the active participation of non-Europeans. Because it predated the Great Divergence of the nineteenth century, in whichWestern Europe pulled ahead of the rest of the world in terms of industrial production and economic output, archaic globalization was a phenomenon that was driven not only by Europe but also by other economically developed Old World centers such asGujurat, Bengal, coastal China and Japan.[23]


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