Ethnic nationalism is formed by a group with members that may or may not exist within the boundaries of a single state, and yet can be categorized as a group of individuals that share a common ethnic national identity. The nations that practice nationalism share a common heritage, including a common faith, a common language, common ethnic ancestry and a common culture. The first stage in the formation of ethnic nationalism is a form of cultural and moral relativism.
It is inspired by a sense of inferiority and resentment against societies (or social groups) perceived to be morally and culturally superior. The architects of such nationalisms begin by insisting on the plurality and equality of (national) cultures, with the fact of plurality being taken as a sign of value. Appeal of ethnic nationalism By the end of the nineteenth century, ethnic nationalism was already the most common type of nationalism in the world. The real meaning of nationalism has been confused by many people.
People’s inability to distinguish between different types of nationalism and to perceive the close similarity between the ideologies of ethnic identity and ethnic nationalism, shows how natural it has become for us to think in terms of ethnic nationalism, how unproblematic, how legitimate its vision appears to us. Ethnic nationality is appealing to us because as compared to civic nationalism, it provides superior psychological gratification. It limits individual’s freedom, while at the same time relieves them of responsibility and offers a sense of tangible order.
It offers the universal need, to live in a free society, where one may choose one’s identity. It is natural, what with the anomie and the disconcerting indeterminacy of one’s reality, to yearn for the comfort for the regulated world where one is never allowed more than what one can accomplish. It allows for one to be respected and the maintenance of his dignity is assured by his membership in the dignified community irrespective of his accomplishments. The experience of modernity, in other words, created as it is by nationalism, favors ethnic nationalism. (Goldmann etal 34-35)
Ethnic nationality has also been promoted by the recent wave of democratization which has spread throughout the world alienation from increasingly impersonal, bureaucratic and centralized states; and the declining importance of class-based political parties and movements. Uneven economic development has often frustrated the desires of regionally based ethnic groups for educational and occupational mobility and an improved standard of living. In this light, ethnic nationalism can be seen as an attempt to maintain or to create a sense of identity and community in the face of the threat of cultural assimilation or cultural destruction.
Ethnic nationalism is used by governments, including its use for elite manipulation, its involvement in situations of threat and defense, its relationship to relative economic deprivation and the interstate rivalries that feed on ethnic secession and irredentism for their own needs. Limits of ethnic nationalism On the other hand, ethnic nationalism is associated with several limitations. In the modern world, the rise of ethnic nationalism has often resulted in disruptive changes such as the disintegration experienced by several multiethnic states.
As a result, it is incompatible with the idea of the state nationalism that seeks the convergence of territorial and political loyalty, irrespective of competing locus of affiliation, such as kinship, profession, religion, economic interest, race or even language. This may occur, for example, where the government forces the members of certain ethnic groups to agree to ethnic nationalism. For example, the officials of Pakistani present the country as one united nation with a common history, common culture and common religion.
But various ethnic groups refuse to accept those lies and, despite a common religion, challenge them with the myths of their own distinct history, culture and language. Due to such reasons many people have sympathized with ethnic nationalism and said that it at least faces up to the negativity of the existing world. (Khan 25) Zhao Suisheng says that repression is not the only measure the state has deployed to retain ethnic minority areas. The role of the state, even the totalitarian state, has its limits.
Ethnic nationalism has a resilience of its own; it cannot be easily dislodged from the minds of minority peoples by repression. The state may rewrite history as a means to colonize ethnic minorities and to control them through coercive policies. It can not however eliminate the historical memory of ethnic minorities. The inclusion of identity as a factor in ethnic nationalist should be considered. Many nations that support ethnic nationalism encourage its citizens to follow only one culture, leading to the loss of identity to many people in the country.
Maintenance of people’s identity should be considered as it plays a key role in motivating ethnic nationalistic communities, and in explaining the shared goals among the members. While identity is important in explaining the shared goals within an ethnic nationalist community, other factors such as homeland relationships should also not be overlooked. (Zhao Suisheng 79) Question two Multilateralism Multilateralism is a term used in international relations to refer to many countries working jointly on certain issues.
There are several principles and features of multilateralism, which it follows for the sake of its effective operation, such as defending human rights, promoting free trade and globalization, conserving the environment and encouraging freedom of movement to mention but a few. Although all the aforementioned principles are set for the good of multilateralism, they may either weaken or strengthen it as an approach to finding solutions to global problems. Principles and features of the international system affecting multilateralism Human rights
Multilateralism encourages the leaders of its member countries to consider the humanitarian needs and the human rights of the citizens first, before their personal interests. It also encourages them to maintain good relations with other countries. This is especially the case when it comes to political instability. Due to multilateralism, international organizations have offered help to the member countries, for example, in cases of political instability. On the other hand, politically stable countries have helped the politically unstable ones to regain peaceful relations.
This shows the role of multilateralism as a good approach to resolving problems affecting several countries. For example, the United Nations played a big role in the recent fight between Israel and Gaza. A report by the United Nations accused the Israeli troops of abusing the human rights. The troop was accused of human rights violations such as shelling a building they had ordered the civilians to enter, using a Palestinian child as a human shield during fighting in Gaza, shooting Palestinian children among many others.
The United Nations was at the fore front of urging the two countries to settle their differences and observe peaceful relations. Globalization and free trade Multilateralism encourages globalization. Globalization is defined as the sense of wide spread international movement. It implies a higher place of organization, where discrete international entities dissolve, so that all major political and economic decisions are transmitted globally. It sees the death of boundaries encouraging free trade; in this sense, it is seen as a factor strengthening multilateralism as the preferred approach for resolving global problems.
Globalization has been of utmost performance in reducing barriers to trade in both goods and services and capital flows. Occurrence of unhampered trade has not only caused maximum economic welfare for the participating states, but has also caused peaceful relations among states. No single country is completely self-sufficient in terms of its consumer needs, such as food. Multilateralism has therefore been able to balance the two aspects; it has provided a market for the big producers of consumer products, while satisfying the consumer needs for the people in the low producing countries.
Health Multilateralism involves and encourages the movement of people from one country to another. It has seen the movement of people among nations, resulting to immigration. Immigrants find their way in an environment that is new to them due to several reasons such as wars, the search for a better life and famine among many other reasons. Multilateralism has given people the freedom to move to foreign countries and easily acquire passports, work permits and other documents required for one to settle in the country.
However, this movement has seen crowding in the developed nations, as the people from the third world struggle to find ways to migrate to the developed nations. It has also resulted to the spread of diseases from one nation to the other. Many of the people who migrate as refugees are not screened for dangerous or contagious diseases. They spread diseases from their home countries to the foreign country. A good example was the spread of diseases that happened in the 20th century is spread of Ebola by Uganda immigrants to the neighboring countries like Kenya and Tanzania, and the spread of small pox by immigrants form Congo.
Environmental conservation One of the principles of multilateralism is to oversee environmental conservation, especially today, when global warming has been declared a global environmental crisis. It’s well known that multilateralism encouraged the developed countries to establish industries in the developing countries. However, in doing this, it has accelerated the rate of global warming in the developing countries. Initially, the developing countries have little levels of global warming.
When the multinational companies in the developed nations establish subsidiaries in the developing nations, they accelerate global warming through the increased emission of the green house gases to the atmosphere, and increasing chances acidic rain. This, not only poses health risks to the people in the developing nations, but is also a cause for the destruction of their crops as most of them rely on farming. Even though multilateralism intends to encourage environmental conservation and the development of the third world countries, it ends up encouraging global warming indirectly.
Works cited 1) Khan Adeel. “Politics of identity: ethnic nationalism and the state in Pakistan. ” SAGE, 2005. Pg 25 2) Goldmann Kjell, Hannerz Ulf, Westin Charles. “Nationalism and Internationalism in the Post-Cold War Era” New York: Routledge, 2000. Pg 34-35 3) Hider James, UN accuses Israeli troops of Gaza human right abuses; Times Online. 3/24/2009, retrieved on 4/17/2009 from http://www. timesonline. co. uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article5962905. ece 4) Zhao Suisheng. A nation-state by construction: dynamics of modern Chinese nationalism. Stanford University Press, Beijing; 2004. pg 79
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