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Global Perspective on Health Policy Essay


A macro perspective on health policy issues can be helpful to identify how problems become policy issues and how these issues result in the creation of health care policy. The neglected epidemic of Chronic Disease also known as non- communicable diseases are a controversial issue that needs to be addressed in the world. In this paper, the writer will provide an explanation of how this issue has resulted from a policy’s creation. Identify the steps in the state and federal policy development process. Furthermore, differentiate between policy development and implementation. Also, explain how stakeholders become involved in the process and why their voices often become a driver for change in health policy.

What is Chronic Disease?

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases are not transferred from person to person. They are slowly progressed over time. The four main kinds of non-communicable diseases are cardiovascular diseases such as strokes or heart attacks, any type cancer, chronic respiratory diseases like chronic obstructed pulmonary disease and diabetes. Other Chronic Diseases that affect many Americans are, Obesity and Overweight, Asthma, Epilepsy, Food Allergies, Glaucoma, Alzheimer’s, and Heart Disease (Non-communicable diseases. 2014). A Chronic Disease is a long-term illness that can be controlled, but not healed. The worldwide population is affected by chronic diseases. In the United States, chronic disease is the leading cause of disability and death that accounts for 70% of all deaths.

Out of these premature deaths, 90% effect low- income and middle-class population. The World Health Organization shows that chronic illnesses are also the main reason for untimely deaths everywhere, even in places where communicable ailments are widespread (What is Chronic Disease?. 2011). According to the article, chronic disease is the most preventable and can be successfully controlled, and they are also very costly health issues and the most common. With the proper care and treatment, these long-term diseases can be controlled (What is Chronic Disease?. 2011).

The Epidemic of Chronic Disease

In today’s society, Chronic Disease is responsible for an enormous percentage of diseases in people. Non-communicable diseases affect all regions of the world and age groups. People before the age of 60 attribute to 9 million of the deaths associated with chronic disease. Even though Chronic Disease are a huge problem in low-income areas, these diseases and risk are not exclusive to more wealthy Americans (Horton, R. 2005). The most vulnerable to the risk factors that contribute to chronic diseases are adults, elderly and children. Studies prove that it comes from unhealthy diets, exposure and use of tobacco products, not regularly exercising and harmfully using alcohol. Non-communicable disease are driven by aging and the globalization of unhealthiness in our lives (Non-communicable diseases. 2014). The globalization of unhealthiness like eating unhealthy can result in high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, high blood glucose levels, and higher blood lipids. Many of these risk factors can be lead to cardiovascular disease, which is a common NCD (Non-communicable diseases. 2014).

The Center for Managing Chronic Disease (CMCD) aims help in the effectiveness with management and prevention in chronic disease. The main goal of CMCD is to help people at risk, or that are most vulnerable. Conducting advanced research and publicizing the results to aid in policy change and practices (What is Chronic Disease? 2011). On September 2011, a meeting with the UN High Level on Non-Communicable Diseases was an exceptional chance to produce a sustained global drive contrary to preventable disease and disability, premature death for chronic diseases, like stroke, cancer, heart disease and respiratory disease and diabetes. This is an increasing global threat in NCDs that is a barrier to developmental goals. These development goals include health equity, poverty reduction, human security and economic stability (The Lancet. 2011). Policy Making Process. In healthcare, Chronic Disease epidemics cause many threats to the world. In response to the crisis, The Lancet NCD Action Group and the NCD Alliance has proposed five priority actions.

Which are: “Leadership, prevention, treatment, international cooperation, and monitoring and accountability—and the delivery of five priority interventions—tobacco control, salt reduction, improved diets and physical activity, reduction in hazardous alcohol intake, and essential drugs and technologies (The Lancet. 2011).” The import involvements were chosen for their health paraphernalia, cost-value, small costs of implementation, and political and financial achievability. Tobacco control is the most urgent and immediate priority. They have propose a goal for 2040 that in essence the world would be free from tobacco where fewer than 5% of people engaged in tobacco use (The Lancet. 2011). Policy problems are identified by many factors that include methods that include getting issues on the political agendas and removing them. The first step in the Policymaking Process is agenda setting. Agenda setting is all about decision-making in the first phase of the policymaking process. To be considered on the agenda, difficulties must arise to policymakers’ attention.

Healthcare problems are highly visible, because the affect the nation, whereas major problems no relating to health are considered invisible to make the agenda (The Lancet. 2011). The Policymaking process discusses the precise decisions and procedures that are required for a policy to be considered, proposed and implemented. This process is an interactive progression with various points of access that provides opportunities to impact the many decisions (Politics and the Policymaking Process. n.d.).Policymaking process is an interactive process with several points of entree that provides chances to influence the decision-making processes involved in each of the stages. Furthermore, there are three phases of policymaking: the implementation phase, the formulation phase, and formulation phase (Politics and the Policymaking Process. n.d.). Policy development and implementation. During Policy Development, policies may be developed and applied at several stages and may vary from formal regulations and legislation to the informal procedures by which governments function (Policy Development. n.d.).

An example of policy development would be in government policy that is related to youth, children and health developed at national and federal; territorial and provincial; community, local and district; or international levels by elected executives transversely with a quantity sectors that includes education, health, social services, finance, recreation and labor. Additionally, policy development time frame is determined by various factors that include government agendas and media attention. (Policy Development. n.d.). On the contrary, Policy implementation involves putting implemented policies into play. Success from implementation is depends on three essential elements.

First element is the state or president and government officials locally, must pass down polices to the proper agency with the government bureaucracy (Policy Implementation – Boundless Open Textbook. n.d.). The second element that is essential to policy implementation is strong interpretation. Meaning that legislative intent need be deciphered into functioning guidelines and agendas. The concluding element necessary in operative policy implementation is also challenging to achieve. Dedication of assets to implement policy beneath the primarily element must be combined with organization of the policy with enduring processes (Policy Implementation – Boundless Open Textbook. n.d.).

Stakeholders in Healthcare. A Stakeholder involvement in planning, management policymaking has be brought on by new general development models. These models seek a different role for each state based on consensus, pluralistic structures and political legitimacy. Stakeholder contribution can be categorized into three forms: cooperative, instructive and consultative (Involving Stakeholders in Aquaculture Policy-making, Planning and Management. n.d.). In Cooperative involvement primary stakeholder act as companions with government in the decision processing. Consultative involvement is where government makes the primary decisions and stakeholders still have influence in the outcome and processes. Last, in Instructive involvement the government makes the choices but apparatuses occur during information interchange (Involving Stakeholders in Aquaculture Policy-making, Planning and Management. n.d.).


The macro perspective on health policy issues can be helpful to identify how problems become policy issues and how these issues result in the creation of health care policy. Chronic diseases impact the healthcare industry in many ways. This controversial issue impacts all age groups. The Center for Managing Chronic Disease (CMCD) helps with management and prevention in chronic disease. This paper, provided an explanation of how the epidemic of Chronic Disease has resulted from a policy’s creation. Moreover, identified the steps in the policy development process. Furthermore, differentiated between policy development and implementation. Also, explained how stakeholders become involved in the process and why their voices often become a driver for change in health policy.


What is Chronic Disease?. (2011). The Center for Managing Chronic Disease. Retrieved October 13, 2014, from http://cmcd.sph.umich.edu/what-is-chronic-disease.html Horton, R. (2005). The Lancet. The neglected epidemic of chronic disease : The Lancet. Retrieved October 13, 2014, from http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2805%2967454-5/fulltext#bib4 Non-communicable diseases. (2014). WHO. Retrieved October 13, 2014, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs355/en/ The Lancet. (2011). Priority actions for the non-communicable disease crisis: The Lancet. Retrieved October 14, 2014, from http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2811%2960393-0/abstract Policy Development. (n.d.). A Brief Guide to Understanding Policy Development. Retrieved October 10, 2014, from http://www.ruralnovascotia.ca/documents/policy/understanding%20policy.pd Politics and the Policymaking Process. (n.d.). The Policymaking Process. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205011616.pdf Policy Implementation – Boundless Open Textbook. (n.d.). Boundless. Retrieved October 15, 2014, from https://www.boundless.com/political-science/textbooks/boundless-political-science-textbook/domestic-policy-15/policy-making-process-95/policy-implementation-516-6175/ Involving Stakeholders in Aquaculture Policy-making, Planning and Management. (n.d.). Involving Stakeholders in Aquaculture Policy-making, Planning and Management. Retrieved October 15, 2014, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/AB412E/ab412e32.htm

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