Pakistan has the fifth largest population country worldwide contributes only 0. 4% of world’s greenhouse gas emissions. Regardless of its low contribution, global climate change in Pakistan has resulted in irreversible destruction with remarkable environmental, social and economic effects including natural ecosystems and forest resources of the country. Kyoto protocol framework convention on global climate change was completed on December 11, 1997 and enforced on February 16, 2005. Ratification of the protocol was made to reduce emission of green house gases.
In Pakistan the issue of global climate change and Kyoto protocol is being discussed due to the serious challenges and risks posed by global climate change to Pakistan contributing to global warming. Coordinated and integrated approach in Pakistan towards global climate change enhances and ensures there is sustainable development and sustained economic growth (Fletcher, July 21, 2005, p. 2). Pakistan is committed to global efforts in alleviating global climate change to improve and protect environment by forming a committee on climate change and Kyoto protocol.
United Nations in Pakistan have tried in playing a major role in advancing global development agenda which is concerted on global action to meet climate change challenges. Like any other country, Pakistan has the role of involving any effective measures to combat global climate change once Kyoto protocol expires in 2012. Kyoto protocol legally binds targets to countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Pakistan has ratified the Kyoto Protocol and it’s eligible to benefit from it.
It was believed that Kyoto Protocol will help Pakistan in having low dependence on fossil fuels by providing support on use of renewable energy sources. Although Pakistan is not a big polluter of environment, it suffers from the consequences of global climate change (Mumtaz, 2005). Pakistan signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Rio on June 13, 1992 with formal ratification on June 1, 1994. In Pakistan the Clean Development Mechanism was initiated under Kyoto Protocol in the UNFCCC with an aim of exploring cost-effective measures to alleviate effects of global climate change.
This has immensely helped Pakistan in achieving sustainable development which contributed ultimately to objective of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Clean development mechanism in Pakistan is helping in implementation of project activities that reduces emission of greenhouse gases generating carbon credits/ certified emission reduction in return. Pakistan has deposited instrument in accession to Kyoto Protocol on January 11, 2005 which has become eligible to benefit from Clean Development Mechanism.
In Pakistan the Ministry of Environment has been declared as a Designated National Authority (DNA) (Fletcher, July 21, 2005, p. 5). Clean Development Mechanism has offered technical and policy support which included implementation of Clean Development Mechanism strategy, conduct awareness raising, enhancement of capacity for CDM project development, review of CDM projects for contribution of approval by DNA and advising government in technical matters in relation to Clean Development Mechanism in Pakistan.
Implementation of Kyoto Protocol offers national operational strategy in implementation of Clean Development Mechanism in Pakistan in line with national sustainable development objectives. This ensures transparency and efficiency which defines institutional arrangements in implementation of CDM in Pakistan (Fletcher, July 21, 2005, p. 8). Conclusion Kyoto Protocol was legally binding for countries which have ratified it. The protocol major treaty is reduction of emissions, responsibilities of developing countries like Pakistan and emissions trading and joint implementation.
Joint implementation is a project-based activity in which a country receives reduction of emission credits funding projects on reduction of emissions to combat global climate change. Establishment of clean development mechanism has modified implementation in Pakistan. List of References Fletcher, S. R. , (July 21, 2005), CRS Report Congress on Global climate change: the Kyoto protocol retrieved December 9, 2008 from http://italy. usembassy. gov/pdf/other/RL30692. pdf Mumtaz, R. (2005), “Kyoto protocol on climate changes insufficient,” Pakistan Times, retrieved December 9, 2008 from http://pakistantimes. net/2005/11/01/top6. htm