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Global Capitalism Essay

Edward Said has argued that the Orient was “almost a European invention” and crucial to the colonial project. Samuel Huntington argues that the world is being driven towards an evitable “clash” between essential cultural differences. What do race/ethnicity, culture and difference have to do with global capitalism? Global capitalism is the key to how society operates today. The impact that global capitalism has created relies much on the past in relation to race, ethnicity, culture and differences. These four categories are linked to global capitalism in ways that can maintain the system or ultimately destroy it. Berberoglu, B (2005, p49) says global capitalism refers to the inter-exchange of technology, trade and finance into one market, whereby which brings different cultures together closer. Global capitalism which is wide spread especially in western countries, cities such as London, Paris and New York are areas in which have a huge combination of diversity and culture. However in order to know the impact culture has had on global capitalism.

What is culture? Culture is something for which individuals can establish their identity through the knowledge of building blocks such as language religion or ethnicity. (Globalisation of world politics, p 120). This cultural identity can stretch to become something big, known as a civilization. (Globalisation of world politics, p421). What has been observed according to Baylis, J. Smiths, S. Owens, P. (2008, p269) is that global capitalism has grown so fast that it is interfering with diverse cultures all throughout the world by destroying already stable localities, and bringing the idea of homogenisation. This has led to in some countries, the loss of individual cultural identity. Most importantly it has created a cosmopolitan consumer culture which has made places in the world more identical with integrated cultures interacting with one another. Baylis, J. Smiths, S. Owens, P. (2008, p423)

Colonialism play a huge part in the way capitalism has an impact in today’s world. Loomba, A (1998, p124) as colonialism was the passage through which capitalism was able to expand globally. However this couldn’t have been done without the assistance of racism. Ratcliffe,P (2004,p27 )says race is a term that is taken for granted, especially when it comes to definition. Its meaning varies on the individual, whereby it could be a set of physiological and behavioural features. Moreover it could be a way of systematic organising by the inferiozation of certain groups to be applied globally. Taking into account this definition of race, Loomba, A (1998, p57) stated that colonization reshaped knowledge of human beings forever, to attribute to on-going continuation of capitalism, providing a mis-representation of reality and functioning like a set of ideologies. The spread of this knowledge in colonialism involved coercion and force, Loomba, A (1998, p31).

The invention of race was used to segregate individuals and to organise and structure labour that was required for upshot of capitalism. This eventually led to the formation of classes which determined the designated work given to each respective individual. Brodkin, K. (2000, p245) Loomba, A (1998, p4 ) the penetration of these societies, which affected cultural identity lead to an unequal economic balance whereby European capitalism benefited. The growth of finance for global capitalism was fuelled by the exploitation of individuals where labour was available but was limited in capitalism. These were in places, where the culture was intact such as Africa and Latin America. It is because of the subordination of undeveloped countries that provided growth for the western countries to accumulate more capital to ignite what we now see today as globalization. Loomba,A (1998, p5). Racial segregation was vitally important for colonisers, as they didn’t want any confusion in the division between races and cultures between the colonisers and colonized. This mainly being because the subordination had to continue in order for capitalism to work. Loomba, A (1998, pp 68, 69). Colonialism played a huge part in the origin of European capitalism and without it couldn’t have survived to this moment of time. Loomba, A(1998, p4).

Racial ideologies and class formation was largely dependent on the impact of the colonisers. Today the treatment of African descendants can arguably be similar to their ancestors in metropolitan societies, whereby opportunities and wages are unequal. This being based on the stereotypes that were established during colonisation, which facilitate the stereotypes individuals may have on migrants who belonged to a once colonised country Loomba,A (1998, p129). The ideologies of race which were established in colonisation helped to formulate a system of class, which was essential for the continuity of capitalism by racialization. The dependence on racial hierarchies allows global capitalism to intersect areas that have so far resistances. Loomba (1998, p127). This in effect is why as long as capitalism exists and continues to grow; there will always be countries that are developed and undeveloped Loomba (1998, p130). The way capitalism has worked till now is because of the link mutual link between class and race. Loomba,A (1998, p30) Global capitalism is yet to infiltrate every country in the world. It has had resistance from places which are concerned with the preservation of their cultures. Baylis, J. Smiths, S. Owens, P. (2008, p426)

This has led to religious revivalisms as capitalism has allowed everything to be fetishized and become a commodity. Loomba, A(1998, p26) It is this which has caused the outbreak of religious fundamentalism especially in Islam which has raised increasing awareness of terrorism throughout the world. Baylis, J. Smiths, S. Owens, P. (2008,p426) . This extreme form of liberalism has been adopted to ensure the reduction of global capitalism; the goal of which to create a homogenous culture. Baylis, J. Smiths, S. Owens, P. (2008, p424) Orientalism is something Edward Said is renowned for and highlighted the orient was created to ensure the maintenance of global capitalism. Loomba, A (1998, p41). The knowledge about the orient that was circulated across the western countries was created in support of the ideology of colonial power. Loomba (1998, p43) this was done in order to sustain the power they had from capitalism moreover it created stereotypes that were negative towards non-western individuals. Loomba, A (1998, p45) Samuel Huntington stated that cultures will play a huge role in global politics and that they will be a source of conflict. (Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992, Part 1).

He identified there are 8 civilizations in the world in which conflict will occur creating a huge gap between the respective different civilizations. Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992, Part 1). There is a struggle for a new world order which is between the western culture and the Arab culture. Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992, Part 2) the modernisation of the Arab world without integration of western policies has made them a threat to the western cultural hegemony. Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992, Part 3).The combination of international institutions with military power and economic resources has allowed the western culture, consumer culture, to be present throughout the world. Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992, Part 3). This creating a great threat has made some countries go into isolation, afraid of which to lose their culture. The conflict being with the west and Islam is the policies in which the west impose on the Arab culture, in which is used to reaffirm their power while interfering and creating change in Arab culture Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992, Part 3)

This leading to a clash, whereby countries that have preserved their culture, especially the muslim countries protect themselves. This has been evident in the nuclear weapons countries like Iran, Algeria, Iraq and Algeria have been developing. Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992, Part 3) The possession of these nuclear weapons in muslim countries poses as a threat to the cultural hegemony the west has spread through global capitalism. Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992, Part 4) The acceptance of a civilizations from the west of something that is different to their’s creates a problem whereby global capitalism is the root of the problem to which conflict will arise. Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992, Part 4) To conclude, race, culture and difference have an enormous impact in the way global capitalism has turned out. The formation of race was crucial to the identification of different classes in which were established, in which ensured the continuity of capitalism. Brodkin, K. (2000, pp245, 246). Moreover culture is the force of which has led to the world development of today and the differences is what is the root of conflict to come in the foreseeable future.

Bibliography
Baylis, J. Smiths, S. Owens, P. (2008) The Globalization of World Politics: An introduction to international relations. 4th edn.Oxford: Oxford University Press. Berberoglu, B. (2005) Globalization and Change: The Transformation of Global Capitalism. (ed.) Oxford: Lexington Books. Brodkin, K. (2000) Global Capitalism: What’s race got to do with it?, American Ethnologist, 27(2), pp 237-256. Loomba, A. (1998) Colonialism/ Post Colonialism. London: Routledge. Ratcliffe, P. (2004) ‘Race’, Ethnicity and Difference: Imagining the Inclusive Society. Berkshire: Open University Press. Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992), Part 1, You Tube. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oOZXpcfE4S0 (Accessed: 3rd May 2012) Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992), Part 2, You Tube. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C26-YXyt64w&feature=relmfu (Accessed: 3rd May
2012) Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992), Part 3, You Tube. [online] Available at:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOzCwB2LtU4&feature=relmfu (Accessed: 3rd May 2012) Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992), Part 4, You Tube. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHUDFaD2gsE&feature=relmfu (Accessed: 3rd May 2012)

Critical bibliography

Baylis, J. Smiths, S. Owens, P. (2008) The Globalization of World Politics: An introduction to international relations. 4th edn.Oxford: Oxford University Press. This booklet allowed me to have an overview of what the key terms were in order to understand the question. It gave my essay direction in answering the question in the best way I possibly could.

Berberoglu, B. (2005) Globalization and Change: The Transformation of Global Capitalism. (ed.) Oxford: Lexington Books. Brodkin, K. (2000) Global Capitalism: What’s race got to do with it?, American Ethnologist, 27(2), pp 237-256. This allowd me to see the links between global capitalism and race. It gave numerous insights into how race and capitalism were linked and formed. More importantly it gave me the information needed to ansewer the question with the connection between capitalism and race.

Loomba, A. (1998) Colonialism/ Post Colonialism. London: Routledge. This book was very useful. It provided information that helped formulate my arguments and played a huge role to the structure of my entire essay. The information it provided related to the past in terms of how capitalism was formed and the relationship it has with colonialism. It also stresses importance of colonialism and culture which has made capitalism a driving force which has continued to grow.

Ratcliffe, P. (2004) ‘Race’, Ethnicity and Difference: Imagining the Inclusive Society. Berkshire: Open University Press. This book helped me to gain a real understanding on race, whereby I could find the definition and that could help me to link it to other sources of information I had found.

Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992), Part 1, You Tube. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oOZXpcfE4S0(Accessed: 3rd May 2012) Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992), Part 2, You Tube. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C26-YXyt64w&feature=relmfu(Accessed: 3rd May 2012) Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992), Part 3, You Tube. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOzCwB2LtU4&feature=relmfu (Accessed: 3rd May 2012) Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations (1992), Part 4, You Tube. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHUDFaD2gsE&feature=relmfu (Accessed: 3rd May 2012) – This allowed me The whole collection of Samuel Huntington, clash of civilizations videos helped me to understand a perspective which included the differences of culture leading to conflict. More importantly it helped me to gain a viewpoint on how culture is really important in terms of global capitalism.


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