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Geology Study Guide Essay

Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?|1)|

A)physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past

B)physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past

C)historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface

D)none of the above – physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same

2)|________ was the highly influential, ancient Greek philosopher noted for his writings and teachings|2)| |on natural philosophy and on the workings of Earth.||||
|A) Pappagapolis|B) Aristotle|C) Nero|D) Odysseus||
3)|Compared to the age of Earth accepted as correct today, how did 17th and 18th century proponents|3)| |of catastrophism envision the Earth’s age?||||

They believed it to be about the same as current estimates, give or take a few million years. B)They believed Earth to be much younger than current estimates C)They believed Earth to be much older than current
estimates D)None of the above — they didn’t really address the age of Earth

4) Which one of the following observations and inferences is consistent with the idea of|4)| uniformitarianism?||

lava flows on the seafloor precipitated from seawater
B)sand rolling along a stream bottom shows that sediment is moving downstream C)erupting volcanoes overlie burning, subterranean, coal beds D)all of the above

5)|________ was an important 18th century English geologist and proponent of uniformitarianism.|5)| |A) Isaac Newton|B) James Hutton|C) Charles Lyell|D) James Ussher|| 6)|The currently accepted age of Earth is ________ years.|||6)| |A) 4.6 billion|B) 6.4 million|C) 6.4 trillion|D) 4.6 thousand|| 7)|Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?|7)| A)

older fossils in younger strata indicate a locally inverted geologic time scale B)any sedimentary deposit accumulates on older rock or sediment layers

C)strata with fossils are generally deposited on strata with no fossils

D)older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata

8)|The ________ division of the geologic time scale is an era of the Phanerozoic eon.|8)| |A) Paleozoic|B) Permian|C) Proterozoic|D) Paleocene||
9)|The ________ forms the relatively cool, brittle plates of plate tectonics.||9)| |A) asthenosphere|B) eosphere|C) astrosphere|D) lithosphere||


10)|A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific|10)| |observations.|||||
|A) generalization|B) law|C) hypothesis|D) theory||
11)|All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for ________.|11)| A)

the development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts B)development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses C)assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation D)the collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement

12)|________ rocks form by crystallization and consolidation of molten magma.||12)| |A) Indigenous|B) Primary|C) Igneous|D) Sedimentary||
13)|________ rocks always originate at the surface of the solid Earth.||13)| |A) Secondary|B) Sedimentary|C) Metamorphic|D) Igneous||
14)|During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, direct observations showed that a glacier|14)| |in Switzerland flowed forward in the downhill direction while its snout (terminus) was retreating|| |higher up the valley? Which of the following explains these observations in a rational, scientific|| |way?|||||


cooler temperatures meant slower forward glacier flow resulting in snout retreat B)the glacial hypothesis was finally accepted as a scientific theory

C)the melting rate of ice in the glacier exceeded the rate at which new snow and ice were added to the glacier

D)rocky debris in the valley downhill from the snout was deposited by Noah’s flood

15)|In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?||15)| |A) core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere|B) inner core, outer core,
mantle, crust|| |C) inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere|D) core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust|| 16)|The ________ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.||16)| |A) biosphere|B) atmosphere|C) hydrosphere|D) asthenosphere|| 17)|A ________ system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves|17)| |the system.|||||

|A) equilibrated|B) feedback|C) closed|D) open||
18)|________ is often paraphrased as “the present is the key to the past.”||18)| |A) Aristotelian logic||B) Biblical prophecy|||
|C) Catastrophism||D) Uniformitarianism|||
19)|________, a popular natural philosophy of the 17th and early 18th centuries, was based on a firm|19)| |belief in a very short geologic history for Earth.||||
|A) Exoschism||B) Uniformitarianism|||
|C) Ecospherism||D) Catastrophism|||
20)|The ________ proposes that the bodies of our solar system formed at essentially the same time from|20)| |a rotating cloud of gases and dust.||||
|A) Big Band theory||B) Heliocentric theory|||
|C) Nebular hypothesis||D) Plate Tectonics theory|||


21)|The ________ is not a part of the Earth’s physical environment.||21)| |A) solid Earth|B) atmosphere|C) hydrosphere|D) astrosphere|| 22)|________ is the process by which rocks breakdown in place to produce soils and sediments.|22)| |A) Lithification|B) Metamorphism|C) Weathering|D) Subduction|| 23)|Which one of the following statements is not correct?|||23)| A)

magmas crystallize to form igneous rocks
B)sedimentary rocks may weather to igneous rocks
C)igneous rocks can undergo metamorphism
D)metamorphic rocks may melt to magma

24)|The composition of the core of Earth is thought to be ________.||24)| |A)
peridotite||B) granite|||
|C) basalt||D) solid iron-nickel alloy|||
25)|The asthenosphere is actually a part of the ________ of the Earth.||25)| |A) mantle|B) outer core|C) inner core|D) crust||
26)|The ________ is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the Earth’s interior.||26)| |A) inner core|B) lithosphere|C) outer core|D) mantle||
27)|The ________ is the thinnest layer of the Earth.|||27)|
|A) mantle|B) outer core|C) inner core|D) crust||
28)|All of the following provide evidence or clues to the composition of Earth’s interior except for|28)| |________.|||||

slivers of crustal and mantle rocks now exposed at Earth’s surface B)diamond-bearing rocks

29)|The relatively stable interior portion of a continent is known as a ________.|29)| |A) shield|B) craton|C) belt|D) platform|
30)|Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________.|30)| A)

along only the eastern margins of continents

B)scattered throughout continents
C)along the margins of continents
D)in the interior regions of continents

31) The continental shelf is located ________.|31)|

between the continental rise and the abyssal plains
B)landward of the continental slope
C)between the continental slope and continental rise

D)seaward of the continental slope

32) The most prominent feature on the ocean floor are the ________.|32)| A) deep-ocean trenches|B) seamounts||
C) oceanic ridges|D) lava plateaus||


33) In sedimentary rocks, lithification includes ________.33)

A) crystallization and coolingB) cementation and weathering C) compaction and cementationD) compaction and transportation

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

34) a. hypothesis|b. theory|c. fact|d. observation|34)|
35) a. hydrosphere|b. biosphere|c. atmosphere|d. solid Earth|35)| 36) a. protosun|b. Oort cloud|c. protoplanets|d. meteorites|36)| 37) a. crust|b. mantle|c. lithosphere|d. core|37)|
38) a. mountain belt|b. shield|c. craton|d. stable platform|38)| 39) a. abyssal plain|b. seamount|c. oceanic ridge|d. continental slope|39)| 40) a. pressure|b. foliation|c. hydrothermal fluids|d. melting|40)|

TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.

41)|Aristotle and other prominent Greek philosophers were the first ones to promote the doctrine of|41)| |uniformitarianism. F||
42)|Internally, the Earth consists of spherical shells with different compositions and densities. T|42)| 43)|The asthenosphere is a relatively cool and rigid shell that overlies the lithosphere. F|43)| 44)|The doctrine
of uniformitarianism implies that the current forces and processes shaping the Earth|44)| |have been operating for a very long time. T||

45)|The law of superposition applies primarily to sedimentary rocks and lava flows. T|45)| 46)|The currently accepted age of Earth is approximately 4.5 million years. F|46)| 47)|A scientific theory is a tentative or untested explanation that is proposed to explain scientific|47)| |observations. F||

48)|Oceans cover slightly less than half of the Earth’s surface. F|48)| 49)|In an open system both energy and matter flow into and out of the system. T|49)| 50)|According to the nebular hypothesis, all of the bodies in the universe evolved from a rotating cloud|50)| |of gases and dust about 5 billion years ago. F||


51)The lithosphere, asthenosphere, and mesosphere are all layers of Earth defined by their composition. T

52)Much of our modeling of Earth’s interior comes from the study of seismic or earthquake waves. T

53)Continental shields and stable platforms are part of the interior region known as a craton. T

54)According to the rock cycle, any type of rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic) may be transformed into another type of rock, given enough time. T

55)Igneous rocks are produced largely by the deposition and consolidation of surface materials like sand and mud. F

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

56)|List the two, broad, traditional subject areas of geologic study. Physical, Historical|56)| 57)|The statement “the present is the key to the past,” describes what basic geologic concept or|57)| |doctrine? Uniformitarianism||

58)|The ________ states that fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and|58)| |determinable order. Principle of fossil succession||
59)|In natural systems, mechanisms that drive or enhance change are called…Positive feedback|59)| 60)|The thin, outer layer of Earth, from 7 to 40 km in thickness, is called the Crust|60)| 61)|The ________ is the relatively rigid zone above the asthenosphere that includes the crust|61)| |and upper mantle. Lithosphere||

62)|The ________ is the solid, rocky shell between the crust and outer core. Mantle|62)| 63)|The convective flow of liquid, metallic iron in the ________ is thought to generate Earth’s|63)| |magnetic field. Outer core||

64)|Moving from the shoreline towards the deep-ocean basin, the continental margin may|64)| |include the continental shelf________, _slope_______, and the ___rise_____.|| 65)|What type of rock comprises most of the exposed surface of Earth (roughly 75%)?Sedimentary| 65)|


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement
or answers the question.

66) Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?|66)|

A)a mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock, the atoms are randomly bonded without any geometric pattern

B)a rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles

C)in a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains

D)a rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks

67)|Which of the following is not a fundamental particle found in atoms?||67)| |A) neutron|B) protons|C) electron|D) selectron||
68)|Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of ________.|68)| |A) electrons in the valence bond level|B) electrons in the nucleus|| |C) protons in the nucleus||D) neutrons in the outer nuclear shell|| 69)|Which of the following is an accurate description of ionic bonding?||69)|

A)nuclei of bonding atoms exchange electrons; the resulting ions are bonded together by the attractive forces between the negative and positive nucleons

B)atoms of different elements, having gained or lost electrons, form negative and positive ions that are bonded together by attractive forces between ions with opposite charges

C)atoms of two different elements share electrons and protons; the resulting compound is bonded together by the strong, binding energy of shared protons

D)nuclei of two different atoms share electrons, and the resulting compound is tightly bonded by the very strong, induced, electronuclear bonds

70) Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?|70)| A)

the atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons B)the atoms have different numbers of electrons but the same number of neutrons C)the atoms have the same number of electrons and different numbers of protons D)the atoms have different numbers of protons and the same number of neutrons

71)|What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?||71)| |A) muscovite|B) silicate|C) diamond|D) native gold||
72)|Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible|72)| |bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?||||
|A) calcite|B) dolomite|C) quartz|D) plagioclase||
73)|Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide (Si02)?|||73)| |A) diamond|B) quartz|C) olivine|D) calcite||
74)|Which of the following minerals is a silicate?|||74)|
|A) calcite|B) halite|C) hematite|D) muscovite||


75)|A cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weigh 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams respectively. This|75)| |indicates that ________.|||||
|A) gold is 6 to 7 times harder than olivine and quartz|||
|B) gold has a higher density and specific gravity than quartz and olivine||| |C) olivine and quartz powders are harder than metallic gold||| |D) gold and olivine are silicates, quartz is elemental silicon||| 76)|Which one of the following is a sodium and calcium feldspar with twinning striations?|76)|
|A) microcline|B) orthoclase|C) plagioclase|D) sanidine||

77)|Which of the following minerals is a ferromagnesian silicate?||77)| |A) muscovite|B) quartz|C) hornblende|D) orthoclase||
78)|Which of the following minerals is in the mineral group known as mica?||78)| |A) augite|B) muscovite|C) olivine|D) orthoclase||
79)|Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?||79)| A)

they contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green B)they are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements magnesium and ferrium C)they are black to dark-green, silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium D)they contain iron and magnetite, are black in color, and they have metallic lusters

80)|Which one of the following mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate structure?|80)| |A) clays|B) feldspars|C) carbonates|D) pyroxenes||
81)|Which one of the following is a typical product of weathering?||81)| |A) clays||B) feldspars|||
|C) micasmicas||D) ferromagnesians|||
82)|The ion at the center of a silicate tetrahedron is surrounded by ________.||82)| |A) 4 oxygen ions|B) 4 sodium ions|C) 6 oxygen ions|D) 6 sodium ions|| 83)|Which one of the following describes a mineral’s response to mechanical impact?|83)| |A) crystal form|B) luster|C) streak|D) cleavage||

84)|Chrysotile, crocidolite, and amosite are different mineralogical forms of what industrial|84)| |commodity?|||||
|A) Portland cement||B) gemstones|||
|C) asbestos||D) metallic sulfide ores|||
85)|Which of the following diseases has been linked directly to prolonged inhalation of asbestos dust?|85)| |A) diabetes||B) lung cancer|||
|C) glaucoma||D) muscular dystrophy|||
86)|Which of the following is the unit of weight used for measuring diamonds (about 0.2 grams)?|86)| |A) carat|B) Troy ounce|C) kilo|D) point||
87)|Which of the following denotes the purity of gold used in jewelry?||87)|
|A) carette|B) carlot|C) carnot|D) karat||


88)|Ruby and sapphire are red and blue forms of the mineral ________.||88)| |A) diamond|B) corundum|C) emerald|D) turquoise||
89)|All silicate minerals contain which two elements?|||89)| |A) iron, silicon|B) silicon, oxygen|C) oxygen, carbon|D) silicon, sodium|| 90)|Which mineral is easily soluble in water at room temperature conditions?||90)| |A) halite|B) diamond|C) talc|D) olivine||

91)|What element is the most abundant in the Earth’s crust by weight?||91)| |A) chlorine|B) carbon|C) oxygen|D) sodium||
92)|The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as|92)| |________.|||||
|A) cracking luster|B) cleavage|C) crystal form|D) streak||
93)|What in the name given to an atom that gains or loses electrons in a chemical reaction?|93)| |A) isotope|B) ion|C) molecule|D) nucleon||
94)|An atom’s mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in its nucleus?|94)| |A) 13|B) 7|C) 6|D) 19||
95)|Which one of the following is not true for minerals?|||95)| A)

they have a specific, predictable chemical composition
B)they have a specific, internal, crystalline structure
C)they can be a liquid, solid, or glass
D)they can be identified by characteristic physical properties

96)|In which type of chemical bonding are electrons shared between adjacent atoms?|96)| |A) isotopic|B) subatomic|C) covalent|D) ionic||
97)|How do the electrons behave in a mineral with metallic bonding?||97)| A)

they are tightly bound to certain atoms and cannot readily move B)they move to adjacent negative ions, forming positive ions C)they react with protons to make neutrons in the outer valence shells D)they can move relatively easily from atom to atom inside the mineral

98)|Which group of minerals are the most abundant in the Earth’s crust?|98)| |A) chlorides|B) silicates|C) carbonates|D) sulfides|
99)|Which the following denotes the massive, positively charged, nuclear particles?|99)| |A) neutrons|B) protons|C) isotrons|D) electrons|
100)|What are the lightest or least massive of the basic atomic particles?|100)| |A) electrons|B) uranium nuclei|C) protons|D) neutrons|
101)|Which of the following has the highest specific gravity?|101)| |A) gold|B) quartz|C) wood|D) water|


102)|Which of the following will react readily with acids such as hydrochloric?||102)| |A) calcite|B) diamond|C) talc|D) quartz||
103)|Which of the following describes the light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral?|103)| |A) fluorescence||B) virtual absorption|||
|C) color streak||D) luster|||
104)|What is the name of dark-colored mica?|||104)|
|A) biotite|B) quartz|C) calcite|D) olivine||
105)|Hornblende and the other amphiboles have what type of silicate structure?||105)| |A) sheet||B) double chains|||
|C) 3-D framework||D) metallic|||

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

106) a. electron|b. atom|c. proton|d. neutron|106)|
107) a. hardness|b. streak|c. luster|d. cleavage|107)|
108) a. quartz|b. olivine|c. feldspar|d. calcite|108)|
109) a. olivine|b. quartz|c. amphibole|d. pyroxene|109)|
110) a. galena|b. calcite|c. gypsum|d. halite|110)|

TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.

111)Calcite and dolomite are both carbonate minerals. T

112)Graphite and diamond have the same chemical compositions and different crystalline structures. T

113)Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals. T

114)Mineral luster is broadly classified as either being metallic or opaque. F

115)Electrically neutral atoms have equal numbers of electrons and protons. T

116)Rock-forming silicate minerals have higher specific gravities than water. T

117)In a silicon-oxygen structural unit, silicon atoms occupy corners of a tetrahedron. F

118)Calcite and halite react with dilute acids to evolve carbon dioxide. F

119)All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number. F

120)Orthoclase and plagioclase feldspars have quite different forms of cleavage. F

121)Diamond and quartz are both minerals composed of a single element. F

122)The micas, biotite and muscovite, both exhibit one direction of cleavage. T

123)Nonmetallic minerals like quartz and gypsum have no industrial uses. F

124)Ferromagnesian silicate minerals contain some magnesium and/or iron. T

125)Positive ions are atoms that have gained electrons during a chemical reaction. F

126)Isotopes of the same element have the same mass number. F

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

127)|Moh’s hardness scale is a relative measure of which physical property of minerals? Hardness|127)| 128)|What physical property denotes the color of a
powdered mineral? Streak|128)| 129)|The physical property denoting a mineral’s tendency to crack along parallel, planar|129)| |surfaces is known as what? Cleavage||

130)|What is the hardest mineral known? Diamond|130)|
131)|What is the chemical composition of graphite and diamond? Carbon|131)| 132)|In atoms, which electrons are involved in chemical bonding? The valence electrons/outer shell|132)| 133)|A compound is a stable chemical substance composed of two or more what? Elements|133)| 134)|What is the dominant form of chemical bonding exhibited by minerals such as native gold,|134)| |native copper and copper-rich sulfides? Metallic||

135)|What two major characteristics differentiate minerals from natural glasses? highly viscous; cools quickly|135)| 136)|Most glasses and some minerals exhibit a type of fracture characterized by nested and|136)| |curved, crack surfaces. What term describes this property? conchoidal fracture|| 137)|Parallel, straight, linear imperfections visible on the cleavage surfaces of plagioclase|137)| |feldspar are called what? Striations||

138)|What is the smallest particle of matter that exhibits and defines the distinctive chemical|138)| |characteristics of the individual elements? Atoms||
139)|What ferromagnesian silicate mineral is named for its green color? Olivine|139)|

140) What mineral group forms by the breakdown and weathering of rock-forming silicate|140)| minerals and are important constituents of soils? Clay||

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

141) Label the various parts of an atom in the diagram below.


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