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Geology Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Geological Forces That Shape the Earth

Diastrophism Defined: •Comes from the Greek word meaning a “twisting” deformation of the Earth’s crust. All processes that move, or elevate or build up portions of the Earth’s crust comes under this. •Diastrophism covers movement of solid (plastic) material, as opposed to movement of molten material which is covered by volcanism. •The most obvious evidence of diastrophic movement can be seen where sedimentary rocks have been bent, broken or tilted. Types of Earth Movement: a.Uplift •Is the movement of the Earth wherein the crust rises. •Process in which structural highs in Earth’s crust are created (e.g. mountains). •The movement of tectonic plates and igneous plumes are two processes which may result in uplift. b.Subsidence •A sinking or setting of part…

Geology and Technology

The field of geology helps us understand our surroundings on earth. The benefits of geology include how to protect our environment and supplies us with natural resources. Geology helps assist us in avoiding geologic hazards and is based on the scientific method. One of the great contributions to human understanding made by geology is the concept of the vastness of geologic time. None of these benefits could have ever been discovered or even thought of if science did not collide with technology. Science and technology are closely related to each other, and it seems like they are two major factors influencing the progress of our society. Since the industrial revolution in the 18th century science has been in progress. Some…

Fossils Nurse

A fossil is the prehistoric remains of a plant or an animal. Fossils are usually are kept at their best when they are buried under many layers of sand and mud. Under the great pressure from the ground, the sand and the mud become sedimentary rock. The minerals combine forming a mould of the plant or animal under the ground. A fossil can be a trace fossil or a body fossil. A body fossil is what actual organic material from a creature or plant (like a bone). Trace fossils are signs of plants and animal activity that have been preserved in rock. For example, dinosaur tracks, trails and dung are all trace fossils. A body fossil is usually composed of…

Stonehenge vs. Pantheon

Stonehenge: * New geological research is currently being carried out to identify the sites of origin more accurately. How the stones were transported for over 250km (156 miles) to Stonehenge remains unknown, but it is probable that a combination of transport via water networks and hauling over land brought them to the site. The larger sarsen stones are a type of sandstone, a stone found scattered across southern England. Most archaeologists believe that these stones were brought from the Marlborough Downs, where great quantities of sarsens still lie scattered in the landscape, although the exact location of their origin is unknown. * Existing evidence suggests that the ‘bluestones’ were the first stones to be erected at Stonehenge, in a double…

Ophiolite Complexes

Ophiolite complexes are the suite of rocks that became the product of the spreading centers of plate boundaries. Ophiolites or “snake stones” are originally coined by Alexandre Brongniart in 1813 mainly because of its green rocks comprising of serpentine and diabase. Initially, geologists and paleontologists of the 1950s and 1960s hypothesized that oceanic crust emplacements and seafloor spreading might be the cause of ophiolite complexes. According to Kearey and Vine (1996, 24), earlier propositions on ophiolite complexes are associated with (a) magnetic anomaly markings on the seafloor resembling to a stripe-like patterns, and (b) intrusions of magma and spreading of the oceanic ridges. As mentioned by Dilek and Newcomb (2003, 153) of the Geological Society of America, the understanding of…

Rock Cycle for Kids

As all the students flooded into the classroom and started to unpack, the teacher, Mrs.Bentley, said, “Today you are going on a mini field trip to a park with Mrs.Crystal, who studies rocks and minerals! What you’re about to learn is a surprise!” The students cheered, wondering why they were going there. They gladly followed Mrs.Crystal out of the room and to the park nearby. Mrs. Crystal asked, “Do you know what inside a volcano?” Many hands shot up. She pointed to a girl. “Magma, and when it spews out it is called lava.” Mrs.Crystal exclaimed, “Yes! That is correct! It flows down, burning everything in its path. Over a week or so, it cools down and hardens, because on…

Landslide and Debris Flow

A. A landslide is when a mass of soil, rocks and other debris moves down a slope, powered by the force of gravity. Sometimes, this movement is so sudden and rapid that it causes devastating loss of life and structural damage. (http://www.health24.com/medical/Condition_centres/777-792-1461-2097,34702.asp) B. A landslide or landslip is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows, which can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments. Although the action of gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, there are other contributing factors affecting the original slope stability. Typically, pre-conditional factors build up specific sub-surface conditions that make the area/slope prone to failure,…

Mineral Exploration

Mineral exploration is the initial stage of the mining cycle. It is a sequential process of information gathering that assesses the mineral potential of a given area. In simple words it is the search for mineral deposits. The reason of exploration is to trace a new source of metal or useful minerals. This includes industrial minerals like silica or clay minerals, metals like iron, lead, zinc, etc., and precious metals and gemstones like gold and diamonds. Types of Mineral Exploration ·”Grassroots” exploration involves looking for a deposit in an area where the mineral or metal has never been found till date. ·Brownfield exploration is the search for any traces of additional deposits near an identified mine. ·On-mine-site exploration is about…

Principle of Earth Science

The three stages according from the oldest to the youngest formation are granite, basalt and lastly andesite formation. This will discuss about the formation, composition, type of intrusion and cooling history of each stages. The granite formation is the oldest stage since granite is formed usually beneath the crust about 1. 5 km up to 50 km depth. Primarily, granite is composed of silicon and alumina about 72. 04% and 14. 42%, respectively. The formation of granite occurs through extreme metasomatism. Through metasomatism, elements are brought out by fluids like potassium and calcium to convert the metamorphic rock to granite. According to Himanshu K. Sachan (1999), granite in the northern Himalaya starts its cooling history at 705 °C and continued…

Mineral Exploration

Mineral exploration is the initial stage of the mining cycle. It is a sequential process of information gathering that assesses the mineral potential of a given area. In simple words it is the search for mineral deposits. The reason of exploration is to trace a new source of metal or useful minerals. This includes industrial minerals like silica or clay minerals, metals like iron, lead, zinc, etc., and precious metals and gemstones like gold and diamonds. Types of Mineral Exploration ·”Grassroots” exploration involves looking for a deposit in an area where the mineral or metal has never been found till date. ·Brownfield exploration is the search for any traces of additional deposits near an identified mine. ·On-mine-site exploration is about…

Field Trip Report

Excursion at the Montauban mine (September 21st, 2014) Montauban is a Zn-rich VMS deposit that has been exploited from 1910 to the 1960s including several gold-rich zones. The deposit is hosted in highly deformed volcanic rocks metamorphosed to the upper amphibolite grade. Part of the deposit is observable on outcrops and a section from the altered footwall to unaltered basalts in the hanging wall has been visited by a group of six student from the Université Laval and the INRS-ETE. Antoine Caté, Ph.D. student on a metamorphosed VMS deposit lead the tour. Students have observed a typical section through a tilted VMS deposit with the unusual mineral assemblages due to the high-grade metamorphism (anthophyllite, grossular, tremolite, sillimanite, calcsilcates…), as well…

“How the Earth was Formed” video notes

Theory: -sun was surrounded by a cloud of dust and gas -as cloud cooled little grains of minerals started forming -grains of minerals started bumping into each other (Problem was nobody could explain how these microscopic minerals formed a planet) Then in 2003 astronaut Don Pettit performed an experiment onboard the international space station. He put some salt in a plastic bag and found that almost immediately the grains started gathering together into little clumps held together by static charge. -These mineral grains grew into small pieces of rock orbiting the sun -over the next few million years some of these rocks collided and grew bigger -when a rock grew to become around half a mile across, its gravitational pull…

When I Grow Up

I have always had a difficult time with the question “What do you want to be when you grow up?” There are too many things that grab and hold my interest, for a little while at least. I have always known that I wanted to go to college, why I didn’t do so immediately after high school is a mystery to me but, I’m finally here and I intend to get every possible thing out of it that I can. I know it’s not necessary to decide on a specific degree tract freshman year but let’s face facts; I’m 30 years old with two unhealthy parents that need my help, and a niece and nephew that have been taken from…

The Philippines’ Landslide

Mass wasting is defined as the down slope movement of rock and regolith near the Earth’s surface mainly due to the force of gravity. Rock slides and debris slides result when rocks or debris slide down a pre-existing surface, such as a bedding plane, foliation surface, or joint surface. On February 17, 2006 the Philippines was hit by landslides. In Southern Leyte mudslides destroyed the mountain village (Barangay) Guinsaugon. During schooltime between 9 a.m. and 10 a.m., an elementary school was completely buried under the mud layer of up to 10 meters thickness. All the 246 children and the 7 teachers were buried in a few seconds. It is reported that only one child and one adult woman have been…

Igneous rocks: Diorite

Diorite is an igneous rock formed from the partial melting of the crust caused from by basaltic magma from the mantle. It is associated with batholiths, dikes and stocks usually around volcanic arcs. Its volcanic equivalent is andesite which is formed from strombolian type volcanoes. DISCUSSION Physical properties: Diorite is a phaneritic rock that is speckled black and white/grey with a very variable colour index of between 40 and 90 over short distances. The rock has an equigranular or porphyritic texture and has a generally coarse grain size but can be pegmatitic. Phenocrysts of feldspar and horneblende can be found in the porphyritic variety. The equigranular and porphyritic varieties may vary in texture between each other within a few centimetres….

Pride and Prejudice Movie Review

1) In 1859, Charles Darwin described a model of how living things change over time. He described this model and the evidence that supported it in a book called On The Origin of Species. Which scientific term is used to describe a testable model that seeks to explain natural phenomena? A) data B) hypothesis C) observation D) theory 2) When an experiment is repeated and the new results are different from the original results, what could you assume to be true? A) The results from both experiments are worthless. B) The first experiment’s results are worthless and should be discarded. C) The experimental design is flawed and the experiment should be discarded. D) Neither test results are 100% reliable and…

Statement of Purpose

I have a very clear objective- to be good at what I do and enjoy in the process. I want to be resilient in seeking this objective and for this to happen, I need a purpose. I found this purpose in studying Civil Engineering, more specifically in Structural Engineering. Science and mathematics have been my strong suit since my schooldays, as is evident from the grades I received. I have strived to be an engineer since my high school. I have been waiting for an opportunity to apply my concepts of mathematics and physics in the real world. My father, who is a mechanical engineer from the same college I am graduating from, played a huge role in inspiring me…

Dynamic Earth

Has the Earth been static since the beginning of time? Well, Earth hasn’t been moving vigorously but it is changing at a steady rate. New geological features, rock formations, and locations of plates all rise and demolish some in a lifetime and others over a span of millions of years. Earth is dynamic; it constantly progresses and doesn’t rest. Through the churns and molds, the twists and turns, Earth is active because of plate tectonics and the rock cycle. The ideas and theories that make up plate tectonics have shown Earth’s dynamism. The position of plates on global maps didn’t always look similar to the maps shown today. 250 million years ago, there existed a super continent, Pangea, which contained…

Causes and Effects of Earthquakes

There are some programs, like the ones that are broadcast at National Geographic Channel, where professionals show us on many opportunities documentaries about earthquakes and the amount of damage that they had produced in some areas. But… what is an earthquake? We can define them as the shaking of the Earth’s surface caused by the rapid movement of the Earth’s rocky outer layer. In addition, earthquakes results from two main factors and can have two harmful effects. There are two main causes of seismic tremors. One of them is fault rupture. The faults slip because of movement of the Earth’s tectonic plates. Because of the pressure within the crust increases slowly over hundreds of years and finally exceed the strength…

Dynamic Earth

Has the Earth been static since the beginning of time? Well, Earth hasn’t been moving vigorously but it is changing at a steady rate. New geological features, rock formations, and locations of plates all rise and demolish some in a lifetime and others over a span of millions of years. Earth is dynamic; it constantly progresses and doesn’t rest. Through the churns and molds, the twists and turns, Earth is active because of plate tectonics and the rock cycle. The ideas and theories that make up plate tectonics have shown Earth’s dynamism. The position of plates on global maps didn’t always look similar to the maps shown today. 250 million years ago, there existed a super continent, Pangea, which contained…

Lab Report: Point load test

Aim: To determine the strength characteristics of a rock using the point load test and visual judgement. Materials Loading device Loading frame Pump Ram Platens Rock Caliper Method (Standard, 2007) 1. Measure the dimensions of the rock which includes the diameter and length 2. Find the length to diameter ratio to determine which test will be used. If the ratio is greater than 1 use diametrical test. But if the ratio is between 0.6 and 1 use axial test 3. The axial test was carried out for this rock which is then placed in the loading device upright and closed the platens so they are aligned to the centre 4. Increase the load until failure and record the distance between…