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Genetics Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Brave New World and Ethics

Barely peeking over the horizon the barren landscape sparkled as rays of light pierced the darkness driving away the aches and pain from their tired bodies. Straining his eyes he saw the river glowing far in the distance looking so harmless in daylight. Shuddering softly the dark churning waters of the previous night haunted him as he look at the serene form of his wife as she lay in fitful slumber. Turning around he allowed himself one last chance to partake in sweet memories of friends, family, his country, all left behind. As his wife stirred he turned around. He never looked back. Forward they walked towards opportunities untold. Forward they walk towards a new beginning. Forward they walked in…

Interaction and influences of genetics

The current belief in biology disqualify the fact that it is only the genes that determine most of the complex traits of a human being. It is well appreciated that DNA interacts at the molecular level with the signals from the environment as well as from other genes. When this concept is considered at the individual level, certain genes do influence trait development in context to a specific environment (Parens et al. , 2006). In this regard therefore, the degree into which a particular trait is influenced by the environment in relation to the genes depends on the specific environment and genes that have been examined. In most of the cases, it has been discovered that genes do contribute to…

Ethics of Designer Babies

I believe that it is unacceptable to reproduce genetically designed babies, unless it is to prevent disease or disability. Genetically designing babies can be used in many different ways. You can choose their hair and eye color, their IQ, and their special talents. People are beginning to predispose their children to be whatever they think they should be. Some want their children to be superstar athletes, while others want the next Beethoven. Others want their children to be just as they are. A deaf lesbian couple wanted to have a deaf child. Their friend donated the sperm and they asked the geneticists if it were possible to create a deaf child. A few months later, the child was born as…

Race in America

The racial issues have become less significant in today’s society than in earlier days among the American people. In today’s society, many improved racial equality measures have been taken in order to ensure that the people of the United States are treated as if in one social group. Although many actions have been done to improve the equality of the people of America, racial issues still exists. Race in my opinion is the perception that an individual have towards any social group and can see differences from a visual aspect. Even though racial profiling, in the earlier days were a top issue in America, it is dying out and is replaced with the equal standards of today’s society. When people…

Findings in Parthenotes

The reason for the halted development is accounted for by a number of interesting findings that have been reported. This has been termed as genetic imprinting. Normally and naturally, the maternal and paternal genomes have been shown to be epigenetically different, and normal and successful development necessitates both the sets of genomes (Watt, 2007, 554-556). on the other hand, in activated eggs, also called parthenotes, the origin of all the genetic material is maternal, this implies that there is no imprinting from the paternal genome. It is a generally accepted fact that parthenotes do not develop a tropoectoderm neither do they develop any of the primitive endoderm and extraembryonic tissue. Therefore they are not compatible with life; they do not…

Modern Techniques to Increase Crop Yeld

In agriculture and gardening, hybrid seed is seed produced by cross-pollinated plants. In hybrid seed production, the crosses are specific and controlled. The advantage of growing hybrid seed compared to inbred lines comes from heterosis. To produce hybrid seed, elite inbred varieties are crossed with well-documented and consistent phenotypes (such as yield) and the resulting hybrid seed is collected. Another factor that is important in hybrid seed production is the combining ability of the parent plants. Although two elite inbred parent plant varieties may produce the highest yields of their crop, it does not necessarily mean that crossing these inbreds will result in the highest yielding hybrid. The level of heterosis that the parents will generate in the resultant seed…

Intelligence quotient

There has been much research on identical and non-identical twins conducted so as to explore the contributions of genes and environment to individual’s behaviors. However, there is still a big controversy over the nature-versus-nurture idea. Some people ascertain that the way people behave is determined by genes. Meanwhile, others hold the view that the experience plays a more crucial part. In this essay, I will discuss influences of “nature” and “nurture” in the way people act in life. It is undeniable that nature occupies some importance in behavior formation. The linguist Noam Chomsky stated that “all children are born with a language acquisition device”, which helps them to learn to communicate without effort. Another argument is that a substantial part…

Critique on Genetically Modifying Humans

Richard Hayes has written about a topic that most of us have rarely heard about, but have probably seen in a movie once before. In the 1950’s, after Watson and Crick had discovered DNA structures, it was predicted that one day we would be able to genetically enhance our children. Since this prediction, scientists have been discovering specific genes that can alter such areas as: reduction of the risk of depression, potentially doubling life span, growing taller and so forth. Richard goes on to mention that the possibilities of genetic modifications are great, since there are 30,000 genes in the human genome. Mr Hayes sites these claims of genome bioengineering from science magazine articles, University scientific studies, and biotech pharmaceutical…

Council Responsible for Genetics

The Council for Responsible Genetics (CRG) is a non-profit NGO with a focus on biotechnology , the Council for Responsible Genetics was founded in 1983 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. An early voice concerned about the social and ethical implications of modern genetic technologies, CRG organized a 1985 Congressional Briefing and a 1986 panel of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, both focusing on the potential dangers of genetically engineered biological weapons. Francis Boyle was asked to draft legislation setting limits on the use of genetic engineering, leading to the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989. CRG was the first organization to compile documented cases of genetic discrimination, laying the intellectual groundwork for the Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act of 2008…

Why Offspring Produced by the Same Parents Are Different in Appearance

Differences in appearance between offspring from the same parents may be due to environmental factors which can then be divided into subunits including Ageing e. g. Loss of elastin and moisture in your skin as you age causes wrinkles, your back may start to arch or loss of teeth etc. lifestyle choices for example it may be that you dye your hair or use makeup or the way you style you hair etc. or diseases such as Elephantitus causes limbs to swell, Jaundice gives skin a yellowish pigment etc. These factors are just some of the ways in distinguishing you from your siblings from the same parents. Genetic Factors Alternatively your genetic make-up also plays a part in your appearance…

Tay-Sachs Disease

In reading this case study and other articles online, I find this a heartbreaking disease and am thankful that I have had the healthy children that I have. There are several key interdisciplinary members that I would place on the team for this family. I would utilize an obstetrician, geneticist, social worker and clergyman or priest. I feel there are many other additional appropriate team members that could be involved as well, but I will focus on the above listed. I chose the obstetrician because Mrs. Trosack is pregnant, and although her age is greater than optimal for childbearing, she is generally in good health. The obstetrician will provide management and care of the pregnancy by monitoring the stages and health…

Issues Related to Genetic Diversity

What is genetic diversity and how it relates to many different characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. “High genetic diversity indicates many different kinds of alleles for each characteristic, and low genetic diversity indicates that nearly all the individuals in the population have the same alleles”. Genetic diversity relates to certain issues which include mutations, sexual reproduction, migration, and population size. Genetic diversity is the variation of heritable characteristics present in a population of the same species. It serves an important role in evolution by allowing a species to adapt to a new environment and to fight off parasites. It is applicable to domesticated species, which typically have low levels of genetic diversity. Studying genetic diversity in humans…

Human Genome

Human cloning involves the creation of a copy of a human cell or tissue that is genetically identical. The major types of human cloning include reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2009). Therapeutic cloning involves the use of cells from an adult to be used in medicine while reproductive cloning involves making cloned human beings. Cloning has been done on both animals and plants. When done on plants it has been used to raise genetically modified crops. Gene therapy can occur in two forms somatic gene therapy and germline gene therapy. Somatic gene therapy involves removing cells from the patient and adding cloned genes to cells using a viral vector. The cells are amplified and those…

Savior Siblings

The subject of savior siblings is a complex dilemma that encompasses multiple issues. Is it ethical to have a child in order to save another? Is pre-implantation genetic testing moral? Can parents make the decisions for their kids about organ donation? In order for this ethical dilemma to be resolved these questions need to be answered. In the case of Molly Nash, the family was not morally culpable for their decision to have another child to save Molly’s life because Adam was not born solely to save his sister’s life and because the methods used to save Molly’s life had no adverse effects on Adam. Using preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to obtain a healthy embryo to be used as a…

Tay-Sachs Disease

Tay-Sachs disease is a genetic disorder in which, an auto-recessive gene is passed down to the child by both parents. It progressively destroys nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The gene is responsible for producing an enzyme that will cause the breakdown of lipids. The defective gene is unable to produce the enzyme; therefore, there is an accumulation of lipids. When there is too much lipids stored in the body, it is harmful to the body’s cells. Ganglisides (a form of lipids) buildup in the brain and ultimately kill the brain cells, which results in an impaired function. There are 3 types of Tay-Sachs: infantile, juvenile and adulthood. The latter two are less severe. Tay-Sachs in an infant…

Advantages of Human Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering in its present form has been around for approximately twenty five years. The dictionary defines human genetic engineering as the alteration of an individual’s genotype with the aim of choosing the phenotype of a newborn or changing the existing phenotype of a child or adult. There are many social consequences that are associated with genetic engineering which has caused much debate from its beginning in 1970s. The benefits of human genetic engineering are endless, the most predominant advantages include curing genetic diseases, increasing human immunity, and the production of more effective pharmaceuticals. The most promising benefit of human genetic engineering is gene therapy. Gene therapy is the medical treatment of a disease by repairing or replacing defective genes…

Development through life stages

Discuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to the development of the individual (M1) & Evaluate how nature and nurture may affect the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of two stages of the development of the individual (D1). Nature can be loosely defined as genetic inheritance or the genetic makeup (the information encoded in your genes) which a person inherits from both parents at the time of conception and carries throughout life. Several things in an individual genetically inherits include; ranging from gender, eye colour, risks for certain diseases and exceptional talents to height. The concept of nature thus refers to biologically inherited tendencies and abilities that people have and which may get revealed later on as they grow up….

How does DNA play a role in inheritance

How does DNA play a role in inheritance? You receive one-half of your DNA from your mother and one-half from your father Give an example of a dominant and recessive genetic disorder. People with light eyes tend to carry recessive alleles of the major genes; people with dark eyes tend to carry dominant alleles. Give an example of an X- and Y- linked disorder. x(Hemophilia B y(color blindness) How can genetics help to predict diseases? Doctors can give you a predictive genetic test(PGT) to predict future problems. But let it be known that the test is not 100% certainty What role does a genetic counselor play in helping families with known genetic diseases? A genetic counselor play a very big…

Are Friends More Important Then Family

In our daily lives, we socialize with a lot of people, because we have been evolved to cooperate with our species in needs of survival against extreme weather and wild carnivores. generally, in our social life, we are personally closest to two groups of humans : families and friends. Families are the group of humans who shared genetic material with us such as: father,mother,brothers,sister,wife,and son.naturally, family is the most important group of humans to me,because of default characteristics of human genes. Too, because i have a lot of great moment with them.For instance, i remember a moment when we went to a beach and have a lot of fun with them. Also, the one that i most remember, when we…

Solving N-Queens problem using Genetic Algorithms

1 Introduction The N-Queens problem is a classical AI problem. Its name is derived from the allowed moves for the queen piece in chess. Queens are allowed to move horizontally, vertically, or diagonally, backward and forward, with the only restriction being that they can move in only one direction at a time. A queen that can reach another piece in one move captures it. The N-Queens problem is based on the notion of trying to place N queens on an N x N grid, such that no queen will be able to capture any other queen. The N-queens problem is typical of many combinatorial problems, in that it is simple to state and relatively easy to solve for small N,…

Nature and nurture on development

In the study of development, nature refers to the inherited (genetic) characteristics and tendencies that influence development. Some inherited characteristics appear in virtually everyone. For instance, almost all children have the capacity to learn to walk, understand language, imitate others, use simple tools, and draw inferences about how other people view the world. Thus all children have a set of universal human genes that, when coupled with a reasonable environment, permit them to develop as reasonably capable members of the human species. Other kinds of genes create differences among people. Children’s stature, eye color, and facial appearance are largely determined by genes. Children’s temperament—their characteristic ways of responding to emotional events, novel stimuli, and their own impulses—seems to be in…

The genetic disease progeria

Progeria, also known as Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS), is a rare disease that causes children to age eight times faster than they are supposed to. It was discovered in England in 1886 and was named after Jonathan Hutchinson, who first discovered it and Hastings Gilford, who was the first to refer to the disease as Progeria. The name Progeria is derived from Greek and means “prematurely old”. Progeria is commonly referred to as an “early aging disease.” It is fortunately an extremely rare disease. Only 100 cases have been reported since it was discovered and it is estimated to affect only 1 to 2 children in 8 million. There are currently only 4 kids in the UK and about 40…

The best ideas

It is ingrained among most people that important discoveries and concepts are results of concerns about problems of huge complexity. Nevertheless, if we allow more reasoning about that, we are bound to find out that is not always the case since history has been showing us plethora of , say, cientific development triggered by investigation over facts often dismissed as trifles. In order to bolster the argument just stated, it will be useful to refer to the pioneer of Genetics, namely Mendel. Those who would doubt a reclusive monk could make any good science out of growing peas will be appalled by his outstanding achievements. Mendel, tending the pea trees as usual, realised that the collor of the pea beans,…

Genetic explanations

Genetic explanations for the Initiation of addictions Heritability of addictions such as alcoholism and gambling can be studied through family and twin studies. The presumptions of twin and family studies are that if family members share similar behaviours, then the degree to which the behaviours are caused by genetic factors can be examined. There are two types of twins, identical and non-identical. Identical twins are monozygotic (MZ) as they came from the same egg, and therefore share an identical set of genes. Non-identical twins are dizygotic (DZ) as they come from two different eggs that were fertilised at the same time, and as a result their genes are no more alike than any brother or sister’s. Twins can also differ…

Nature vs Nurture

There has always been a large controversy over whether inherited genes or the environment influences and affects our personality, development, behavior, intelligence and ability. This controversy is most often recognized as the nature verses nurture conflict. Skinner talked a lot about natural selection in that we, as a species, must choose to learn as we progress to be able to survive as long as possible (Catania, 2003). This theory was a huge part of the battle between nature and nurture because Skinner’s arguments have so much science and testing behind them and his experimenting proved his hypothesis. Some people believe that it is strictly genes that affect our ways of life, others believe that it is the environment that affects…

Life Span Perspectives

There are many beginnings to the study of human development. The study of human developments is a science that strives to discern how people change over time (Berger, 2011). To do this, developmentalists study all types of people from different age groups, ethnicity, culture, background, nationality, income, and sexual orientation, among many other factors. To begin to understand this science, one must start by looking at what is being studied, some of the major theories that shape and guide these studies, and the interaction of heredity and the environment on human development (Berger, 2011). Developmentalists seek to tackle the challenge of defining humans in a way that simultaneously describes the universalities of humans as well as their differences. Because development…

Are we humans the product of nature or nurture?

Nature is how much of your personality is genetic, what you were born with. Nurture is how much of your personality was caused because of your environment, how you were raised. So does nature or nurture contribute more to someone’s personality and behaviour? Or do they both play a role in shaping our lives? I hope to come to a conclusion with this debate in the end of my thesis. With nurturing, people tend to observe others actions and behaviour, and try to be like others. As a result, the human behaviour is the result of experience and imitating. The social learning theory suggests that we learn through imitation and observation. It also suggests that people learn within the environment…

Are we humans the product of nature or nurture?

Nature is how much of your personality is genetic, what you were born with. Nurture is how much of your personality was caused because of your environment, how you were raised. So does nature or nurture contribute more to someone’s personality and behaviour? Or do they both play a role in shaping our lives? I hope to come to a conclusion with this debate in the end of my thesis. With nurturing, people tend to observe others actions and behaviour, and try to be like others. As a result, the human behaviour is the result of experience and imitating. The social learning theory suggests that we learn through imitation and observation. It also suggests that people learn within the environment…

Nature vs. Nurture

Homosexuality, Addictions and Intelligence There have always been disputes on whether the decision to be homosexual or heterosexual was based on biological or environmental factors. These disputes are known as the Nature vs. Nurture argument. The two sides argue over how gender is chosen within a person. Based on reproductive organs, sex is easily determined at birth: male or female. Gender, however; is the sexual identity an individual takes on. It is possible for sex and gender to be different. For an example of nurture children who were both born with an injured or damaged reproductive organ, males usually can be raised successfully as females. In order to understand which factor is the deciding factor of a person’s gender, both…

Mendel’s Principles

11.2 Applying Mendel’s Principles Probability and Punnett Squares 1. What is probability? Probability is the likelihood that a certain event will occur 2. In a parent pea plant with the allele pair Gg, what is the probability that one gamete will contain the G allele? ½ or 50% 3. Complete the graphic organizer to define the characteristics of homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and phenotypes. Homozygous Heterozygous Genotype Both alleles are the same The alleles are different Phenotype The phenotype depends on whether both alleles are recessive or dominant The phenotype will be that produced by the dominant allele 4. The dominant allele for smooth pod shape in peas is S. The recessive allele for constricted pod shape is s. In…