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General psychology Essay

Introduction ALMOST CERTAINLY YOU WILL PROBABLY HAVE COME ACROSS THE IDEA OF PLAGIARISM ALREADY. PLAGIARISM IS ABOUT THE PRESENTATION OF OTHER PEOPLES’ WORK AS IF IT IS YOUR OWN, FOR YOUR GAIN. THE IDEAS AROUND PLAGIARISM ARE PRESENTED TO STUDENTS IN MANY DIFFERENT WAYS – SOMETIMES PLAGIARISM IS SEEN AS A DREADFUL CRIME. WE WANT TO PRESENT IT HERE IN THE CONTEXT OF AN UNDERSTANDING OF ACADEMIC HONESTY AND WHAT IS TERMED ‘ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT’.

YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THESE THINGS BECAUSE THEY SHOULD GUIDE YOUR MANNER OF WORKING IN HIGHER EDUCATION. PLAGIARISM AND CHEATING ARE SERIOUS ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION, AND PLAGIARISM, IN PARTICULAR, IS INCREASING A GREAT DEAL AT PRESENT. WE WANT YOU TO HAVE THE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS AND THE GOOD WORKING HABITS THAT ENABLE YOU TO MAKE EFFECTIVE AND APPROPRIATE JUDGEMENTS IN YOUR WORK. THIS UNIT IS DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS NEAR THE STARTING POINT OF HIGHER EDUCATION STUDIES.

IT PROVIDES THE INFORMATION AND SKILLS THAT YOU NEED AT PRESENT – AND YOU WILL HAVE MORE MATERIAL ON THIS TOPIC AT A LATER STAGE, WHEN YOU NEED TO KNOW MORE ABOUT IT. The aim of this unit is to: -HELP YOU TO GET A CLEAR IDEA OF ACADEMIC HONESTY AND ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT -CLARIFY THE MEANINGS OF ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT – CHEATING AND PLAGIARISM AND COLLUSION -PROVIDE YOU WITH INFORMATION THAT YOU NEED IN ORDER TO BE ACADEMICALLY HONEST;

-IDENTIFY AND HELP YOU TO ATTAIN THE SKILLS THAT YOU NEED FOR ACADEMIC HONESTY AND GOOD PRACTICE 1 AS WELL AS PROVIDING SOME EXERCISES TO HELP YOU TO LEARN FROM THIS MATERIAL, THIS UNIT IS INTENDED TO BE A RESOURCE TO WHICH YOU MAY WISH TO RETURN FOR GUIDANCE. THE ANSWERS TO THE EXERCISES ARE AT THE END OF THE UNIT. Some points to think about AS A STUDENT YOU SHOULD LEARN ABOUT ACADEMIC HONESTY BECAUSE IT IS AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION BEHAVIOUR. THERE ARE SEVERAL ASPECTS TO IT. IT INVOLVES:

-ENSURING FAIRNESS TO THOSE WHO HAVE PRODUCED NEW KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS; -ENSURING THAT THE WORK THAT A PERSON SAYS IS HER OWN IS INDEED HER OWN; -THE DISCOURAGEMENT FROM CHEATING TO GAIN UNFAIR PERSONAL ADVANTAGE. THE INTENTION TO DECEIVE STAFF OR THE INSTITUTION IS CENTRAL TO THE ACTIVITY OF THE PLAGIARIST OR CHEAT. HOWEVER, IT IS NOT FAIR ON YOU, AS A STUDENT, IF YOUR FELLOW COLLEAGUES CHEAT AND PLAGIARISE AND THEREBY GET BETTER MARKS.

SAM, SUZANNE, IZZY, AND KATRINE ARE IN A LEVEL 1 CLASS AT SOMOUTH UNIVERSITY. THEY ARE ALL STUDYING PSYCHOLOGY AND ARE IN A CLASS OF OVER A HUNDRED AND EIGHTY STUDENTS.

THEIR SEMINAR SESSIONS ARE THIRTY IN NUMBER AND SO FAR THEY DO NOT FEEL KNOWN AS INDIVIDUALS BY STAFF. SUZANNE HAS BEEN STRUGGLING BECAUSE SHE, UNLIKE THE OTHERS, DID NOT STUDY PSYCHOLOGY AT SCHOOL. SHE HAS BEEN QUITE DEPRESSED ABOUT IT AND HAS ASKED THE OTHERS FOR HELP.

THEY DID WHAT THEY COULD, BUT SHE DID NOT SEEM TO BE ABLE TO TAKE IT IN. AT TIMES SHE TALKS ABOUT LEAVING UNIVERSITY. THEY COME TO THE COURSEWORK ASSESSMENT AT THE END OF LEVEL 1 AND TO EVERYONE’S SURPRISE, SUZANNE COMES OUT WITH ONE OF THE HIGHEST MARKS IN THE CLASS. THE TUTOR PRAISES HER WORK AT THE NEXT SEMINAR AS BEING WELL CONSTRUCTED, AND PARTICULARLY WELL WRITTEN.

SUZANNE IS CLEARLY HAPPY AND THEY ALL GO OUT FOR A DRINK IN THE EVENING. UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF A FEW PINTS SHE LETS SLIP THAT SHE PAID ANOTHER STUDENT IN HER HOUSE (FROM LEVEL 2) TO WRITE IT. AFTER THE TIME AND EFFORT THE OTHERS HAVE PUT INTO HELPING SUZANNE, AND DOING THEIR OWN WORK, THE OTHERS FEEL CHEATED BY HER ACTION.

THE ATTITUDE TO PLAGIARISM CAN DIFFER IN DIFFERENT CULTURES, FOR EXAMPLE SOMETIMES IT CAN BE CONSIDERED TO BE AN HONOURABLE ACT TO REPRODUCE THE EXACT WORDS OF THE EXPERT TEACHER. IN THE UK THE NORM IS TO EXPECT STUDENTS TO PRODUCE THEIR OWN WORK. THEY WILL, OF COURSE, USE THE WORK OF OTHERS WITHIN THEIR WORK AND WHERE THIS OCCURS THE OTHERS’ WORK NEEDS TO BE CITED AND WHEN QUOTED, MARKED AS A QUOTATION. SOME INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS MAY NEED TO ADJUST TO UK NORMS WHEN STUDYING HERE.

2 LAU COMES FROM SOUTH EAST ASIA. HE WAS ENCOURAGED TO GIVE GREAT RESPECT TO HIS TEACHERS, THERE AND TO REGARD THEM AS EXPERTS WHOSE WORK WAS TO BE EMULATED. HE IS VERY TAKEN ABACK WHEN HE IS TOLD THAT HIS EXAMINATION PAPER SHOULD EXPRESS MORE OF HIS OWN IDEAS AND SHOULD NOT CONTAIN MATERIAL THAT HE MUST HAVE LEARNT BY HEART FROM HIS LECTURE NOTES. HE FINDS IT HARD TO UNDERSTAND HOW HE, HIMSELF COULD HAVE ANYTHING WORTHWHILE TO SAY AT THIS STAGE.

IF YOU ARE AN INTERNATIONAL STUDENT AND FEEL THAT YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND THE MATERIAL IN THIS UNIT, ASK A TUTOR OR STUDY ADVISOR FOR MORE HELP. Some definitions and explanations WE HAVE SAID THAT THE AVOIDANCE OF CHEATING AND PLAGIARISM IS A MATTER OF HAVING INFORMATION AND A SET OF SKILLS THAT BECOME GOOD HABITS OF WORKING. WE START BY LOOKING AT A SET OF EXPLANATIONS AS PART OF THE INFORMATION, AND THEN YOU WILL BE GIVEN SEVERAL DEFINITIONS.

YOU DO NOT NEED TO MEMORISE THESE DEFINITIONS, BUT YOU ARE EXPECTED TO HAVE A WORKING KNOWLEDGE OF THEM. TO START WITH, WE INTRODUCE THE TERM ‘ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT’ TO MEAN THE USE OF DISHONEST ACADEMIC BEHAVIOUR TO ONE’S OWN BENEFIT. THE TERM INCLUDES CHEATING, PLAGIARISM AND COLLUSION. CLEARLY, SUZANNE ILLUSTRATES ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT IN HER BEHAVIOUR – AND THAT WAS PLAGIARISM. CHEATING IS OFTEN SEEN AS A BEHAVIOUR THAT OCCURS IN EXAMINATIONS, BUT IT IS BROADER THAN THAT.

HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF CHEATING BEHAVIOUR. SIMON KNEW THAT OTHERS NEEDED A BOOK IN ORDER TO COMPLETE THE ESSAYS THAT THEY HAD BEEN SET. HE USED THE LIBRARY BOOK HIMSELF, THEN HANDED IT BACK IN (IT WAS A SHORT-TERM LOAN) AND THEN WHEN HE WAS IN THE LIBRARY THE NEXT DAY, TOOK THE BOOK FROM ITS PROPER LOCATION AND PUT IT IN ANOTHER AREA OF THE LIBRARY.

JAMIE WENT INTO THE EXAMINATION WITH TEN KEY NAMES WRITTEN ON HIS ARM IN BALLPOINT PEN JULIETTE WAS DOING A CHEMISTRY DEGREE. HER EXPERIMENT IN CLASS DID NOT GO TOO WELL AND THE DATA SHE ACHIEVED WAS INCOMPLETE. SHE HAD A LOOK AT HER FRIEND’S BOOK AND GOT AN IDEA OF THE APPROPRIATE KIND OF DATA AND MADE SOME UP.

CHRISTINA HAD NOT DONE ENOUGH REVISION FOR THE CLASS TEST. SHE TOOK THE DAY OFF, SAYING THAT SHE HAD ‘FLU AND KNOWING THAT SHE WOULD THEN HAVE A BIT MORE TIME TO LEARN FOR THE TEST WHICH SHE WOULD DO LATER. 3 ED HAD A PROJECT IN ENGLISH TO WRITE UP, TO BE HANDED IN AT A PARTICULAR TIME.

THERE WAS OTHER ACADEMIC WORK TO BE HANDED IN AT THE SAME TIME AND HE KNEW HE COULD NOT DO ALL OF IT. HE LEFT THE ENGLISH PROJECT UNTIL LAST. AFTER A SESSION IN THE GYM HE COMPLAINED OF A VERY SORE WRIST, PUT A BANDAGE ON IT AND WENT TO SEE HIS TUTOR TO ASK FOR MORE TIME TO COMPLETE THE PROJECT ON THE BASIS THAT HE COULD NOT WRITE VERY QUICKLY AT PRESENT.

HIS TUTOR TOLD HIM TO GO TO THE MEDICAL CENTRE AND GET A NOTE. HE CAME BACK TWO DAYS LATER WITH THE PROJECT NOW COMPLETED AND THE WRIST UNBANDAGED AND ‘HEALED’. THE TWO DAYS HAD BEEN VERY USEFUL. ABI WAS ONE OF A GROUP OF STUDENTS WHO WERE WORKING TOGETHER ON A PROJECT THAT WAS TO BE SUBMITTED JOINTLY. SHE HAD GONE INTO HIGHER EDUCATION PARTLY BECAUSE SHE WANTED TO ENJOY A GOOD SOCIAL-LIFE, AND THE PROJECT WAS NOT GOING TO GET IN HER WAY.

WHEN THE OTHER STUDENTS IN THE GROUP MET TO WORK ON THE PROJECT, SHE WOULD CONSTANTLY SAY THAT SHE COULD NOT MAKE IT. THEY GOT ON WITH THE PROJECT, COMPLETED IT AND HANDED IT IN WITH ABI’S NAME ON IT AS WELL. THEY RESENTED HER BEHAVIOUR, BUT BEING IN THE EARLY STAGES OF THEIR PROGRAMME, DID NOT KNOW EACH OTHER VERY WELL AND DID NOT KNOW HOW TO INDICATE ABI’S LACK OF CONTRIBUTION.

PLAGIARISM, AS WE HAVE SAID, IS ANOTHER FORM OF ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT AND IT REQUIRES A RATHER SPECIAL EXPLANATION WHICH IS AS FOLLOWS: THOSE WHO WORK IN HIGHER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH CAN BE SEEN AS WORKING IN A COMMUNITY – THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY.

THIS COMMUNITY HAS A SET OF RULES TO WHICH IT WORKS. ACADEMIC CONVENTIONS ARE THESE RULES AND ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT IS THE BEHAVIOUR THAT CONTRAVENES THESE AGREED RULES. THESE RULES, OBVIOUSLY IDENTIFY CHEATING AS A CONTRAVENTION HOWEVER, THERE ARE ASPECTS OF THESE RULES THAT REFER TO THE ‘OWNERSHIP’ OF IDEAS. ACCORDING TO THESE RULES OR CONVENTIONS, NEW IDEAS ARE TREATED LIKE PROPERTY THAT SOMEONE OWNS. ONE REASON FOR THIS IS

THAT THERE ARE REWARDS AND AWARDS (GRANTS, PRIZES, QUALIFICATIONS, DEGREES ETC) GIVEN TO PEOPLE FOR THE QUALITY OF THEIR IDEAS. FOLLOWING FROM THE NOTION OF NEW IDEAS AS PROPERTY, WE CAN CONSIDER THE USE OF UNATTRIBUTED IDEAS FOR THE GAIN OF ANOTHER PERSON, AS A FORM OF THEFT. BY ‘UNATTRIBUTED’, WE MEAN THE LACK OF ATTACHMENT OF A NAME AND SOURCE TO THE IDEA – SO IT IS AS IF THE IDEA IS THAT OF THE WRITER.

OTHER WORDS FOR ‘ATTRIBUTE’ ARE REFERENCE, ACKNOWLEDGE AND CITE. YOU USUALLY REFERENCE THE IDEA OF ANOTHER IN THE TEXT (WHERE YOU HAVE REFERRED TO THE IDEA, OR QUOTED FROM IT) AND IN A REFERENCE LIST AT THE END OF YOUR WORK.

PLAGIARISM IS THE TERM FOR PASSING OFF ANOTHER’S WORK AS ONE’S OWN FOR ONE’S OWN BENEFIT. IT USUALLY THAT OTHERS’ IDEAS HAVE BEEN ‘BORROWED’ WITHOUT BEING REFERENCED TO THE ORIGINAL CREATOR OF THE IDEA. PLAGIARISM OCCURS WHETHER THE ‘PASSING OFF OF THE WORK AS ONE’S OWN’ IS INTENTIONAL OR UNINTENTIONAL. WE HAVE TO SAY THAT PLAGIARISM MAY BE UNINTENTIONAL BECAUSE ANYONE CAN ALWAYS CLAIM THAT ‘S/HE HE DID NOT KNOW ABOUT PLAGIARISM’.

4 CORRESPONDINGLY THEREFORE, TEACHERS AND INSTITUTIONS HAVE TO BE CLEAR THEMSELVES THAT THEY HAVE ENSURED THAT STUDENTS HAVE RECEIVED APPROPRIATE OPPORTUNITIES TO UNDERSTAND ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT AND TO HAVE LEARNT THE NECESSARY SKILLS TO BEHAVE WITH ACADEMIC HONESTY. BELOW ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF PLAGIARISM: EMMA WAS DOING A LAW DEGREE AND FOUND THAT HER FLAT-MATE HAD DONE THE SAME MODULE THE YEAR BEFORE AND WAS WILLING TO LET EMMA LOOK AT HER ESSAYS – BUT INSISTED THAT SHE SHOULD NOT COPY ANY OF IT.

EMMA COPIED A LARGE CHUNK OF ONE OF THEM BECAUSE SHE DID NOT UNDERSTAND THE SUBJECT AND ALTERED A FEW WORDS HERE AND THERE. UNFORTUNATELY FOR HER, SHE DID NOT NOTICE THE FONT WAS DIFFERENT ON THE COPIED CHUNK AND HER PLAGIARISM WAS DETECTED. ANNA HAD WORK TO DO IN CHEMISTRY THAT SHE DID NOT UNDERSTAND.

IT WAS ABOUT THE NATURE OF A PARTICULAR REACTION. SHE LOOKED ON THE INTERNET AND FOUND A PIECE OF WRITING THAT WAS EXACTLY WHAT SHE NEEDED – AND CUT AND PASTED IT, ADDING A FEW WORDS OF INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION.

ANTONIO PHONED HOME TO HIS FRIEND FOR HELP WITH AN ASSIGNMENT IN CIVIL ENGINEERING. HIS FRIEND FOUND A PIECE OF WRITING IN SPANISH. ANTONIO HAD IT TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL AND SUBMITTED THAT. BILLIE FOUND THAT AN OLD TEXTBOOK ON MODERN HISTORY AT HIS HOME THAT SAID EXACTLY WHAT HE NEEDED TO SAY IN AN ESSAY. HE COPIED IT. THE CHANGE IN STYLE WAS NOTICED BY HIS TUTOR, WHO CHALLENGED HIM.

COLLUSION IS A FORM OF PLAGIARISM TOO. SOME EXAMPLES OF COLLUSION ARE: JOANNE WAS STRUGGLING IN HER EDUCATION DEGREE. HER FRIEND WAS DOING A SIMILAR DEGREE AT ANOTHER UNIVERSITY. THEY DECIDED TO CHOOSE THE SAME TOPIC FOR THEIR DISSERTATION AND TO WORK TOGETHER ON IT ASSUMING THAT THEY WOULD NOT BE FOUND OUT BECAUSE THEIR RESPECTIVE DISSERTATIONS WOULD NEVER BE SEEN TOGETHER.

STUDENTS IN BUSINESS STUDIES WERE ASKED TO DEVELOP MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR A GIVEN PRODUCT. THEY WERE TOLD THAT THEY SHOULD WORK TOGETHER TO DO THE NECESSARY RESEARCH AND TO DEVELOP A PRESENTATION, BUT THAT THEY SHOULD

THEN WORK ALONE IN THE PREPARATION OF THE WRITTEN WORK THAT THEY WOULD HAND IN. KAY WAS IN ONE OF THE GROUPS. SHE HAD NOT DONE HER FAIR SHARE OF THE INITIAL RESEARCH, AND WHEN IT CAME TO THE WRITTEN WORK SHE ASKED ONE OF HER GROUP TO HELP HER. THE COLLEAGUE LEANT KAY HIS COMPLETED WRITTEN WORK, AND SHE COPIED IT, THEN WROTE HER ACCOUNT, VERY HEAVILY BASED ON HIS. SHE SHOWED HIM HER VERY SIMILAR ACCOUNT BEFORE SHE HANDED IT IN – AND THANKED HIM BEFORE HE COULD OBJECT. BOTH OF THEM WERE DEEMED TO HAVE COLLUDED.

5 THE DEFINITION OF COLLUSION STARTS THE SAME AS FOR PLAGIARISM. COLLUSION IS THE PASSING OFF OF ANOTHER’S WORK AS ONE’S OWN FOR ONE’S OWN BENEFIT AND IN ORDER TO DECEIVE ANOTHER.

HOWEVER, IT GOES ON TO SAY THAT WHILE IN THE USUAL DEFINITION OF PLAGIARISM, THE OWNER OF THE WORK DOES NOT KNOWINGLY ALLOW THE USE OF HER WORK, IN A CASE OF COLLUSION, THE OWNER OF THE WORK KNOWS OF ITS USE AND WORKS WITH THE OTHER TOWARDS DECEPTION OF A THIRD PARTY. ON OCCASIONS, TWO PEOPLE MIGHT COLLUDE IN PLAGIARISING ANOTHER PIECE OF WORK. WHEN WE DEFINE COLLUSION, WE NEED TO BE CLEAR WHERE THE BOUNDARIES OF UNACCEPTABLE AND ACCEPTABLE CO-OPERATIVE OR COLLABORATIVE WORK ARE.

CO-OPERATION IS SEEN AS OPENLY WORKING WITH ANOTHER OR OTHERS FOR MUTUAL BENEFIT WITH NO DECEPTION OF THE OTHER(S) INVOLVED. CO-OPERATIVE BEHAVIOUR IS A COMMON AND IS USUALLY WELCOMED PRACTICE IN HIGHER EDUCATION. RESEARCH TEAMS RELY ON IT. OFTEN YOU WILL BE TOLD THAT YOU SHOULD WORK TOGETHER TO THE POINT OF WRITING UP AN ASSIGNMENT, AND THEN WRITE IT UP SEPARATELY. HOWEVER, THERE MAY BE LOCAL ‘RULES’ OR DESIGNATIONS OF ACCEPTABLE PRACTICE AND OCCASIONALLY VOCABULARY USE WITH REGARD TO COLLUSION, COOPERATION AND COLLABORATION MAY VARY.

IT IS IMPORTANT TO FIND OUT FROM YOUR TUTORS JUST WHAT IS EXPECTED IN YOUR LOCAL CONTEXT. WHAT IS ACCEPTABLE MAY DIFFER FROM ASSIGNMENT TO ASSIGNMENT. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT ON OCCASIONS YOU WILL BE ASKED TO WORK JOINTLY ON A PIECE OF WRITING – AND CLEARLY, THAT IS ALL RIGHT. RATHER THAN TALKING IN THE NEGATIVE ABOUT THE AVOIDANCE OF COLLUSION OR PLAGIARISM, IT IS USEFUL TO USE THE IDEA OF WORKING WITH ACADEMIC HONESTY. ACADEMIC HONESTY IS WHERE YOU UNDERSTAND ACADEMIC CONVENTIONS AND WORK WITHIN THEM. IN THIS INDEPENDENT STUDY UNIT, WE PUT THE STRESS ON PLAGIARISM. THIS IS BECAUSE PLAGIARISM TAKES MORE EFFORT IN UNDERSTANDING THAN OTHER FORMS OF ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT.

THIS IS NOT BECAUSE PLAGIARISM IS NECESSARILY MORE SERIOUS. THE FABRICATION OF DATA – OR MAKING UP OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS CAN BE FAR MORE SERIOUS AND HAVE FAR GREATER CONSEQUENCES THAN PLAGIARISM. SO THAT YOU CAN RETURN TO THIS MATERIAL EASILY ON FUTURE OCCASIONS, WE GATHER UP THESE IDEAS AS A SERIES OF DEFINITIONS AND PUT THEM INTO A GLOSSARY IN APPENDIX 1 OF THIS UNIT.

Exercise 1: Thinking that you know about plagiarism does not mean that you can always decide what is right YOU HAVE NOW LOOKED AT THE EXPLANATIONS OF ACADEMIC HONESTY AND MISCONDUCT AND HAVE READ ABOUT THE JUSTIFICATION FOR CITATION.

IT IS TIME TO TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING. YOU WILL FIND, IN THE NEXT EXERCISE, THAT THINKING THAT YOU KNOW WHAT PLAGIARISM IS MAY NOT MEAN THAT YOU ACTUALLY KNOW WHAT IT IS WHEN IT COMES TO THE DISTINCTIONS OF RIGHT AND WRONG IN YOUR WORK OR THE WORK OF ANOTHER. SOME 6 OF THE EXAMPLES ARE PLAGIARISM, SOME ARE COLLUSION, SOME ARE CHEATING AND SOME ARE ALL RIGHT.

REMEMBER THAT PLAGIARISM OCCURS WHEN THE WORK OF SOMEONE ELSE IS PRESENTED AS ONE’S OWN AND IS NOT ATTRIBUTED TO THE OTHER. ONE OF THE THREE ANSWERS GIVEN (A, B AND C) IS CLOSEST TO THE ANSWER. THE ANSWERS ARE AT THE END OF THE UNIT. 1.

JOE HAS AN ESSAY TO PREPARE. HE METICULOUSLY READS BOOKS IN THE LIBRARY, BUT IS NOT SURE FROM WHICH TEXT THE IDEAS HAVE COME, AND WHICH IDEAS WERE HIS OWN. HE LISTS THE RANGE OF BOOKS HE THINKS HE USED IN HIS REFERENCE LIST. a) Not plagiarism but he should have cited the books in the text b) Plagiarism – he should have cited the books in the text c) Not a problem – he cited the books in the reference list 2.

JAYNE DOES NOT KNOW HOW TO GET STARTED WITH AN ESSAY – SHE IS IN HER FIRST SEMESTER. SHE DELAYS STARTING IT AND THEN PANICS AND HER FRIEND SHOWS HER HOW SHE CAN BUY AN ESSAY FROM A PAPER MILL WEBSITE.

SHE BUYS ONE AND SUBMITS IT (‘ONLY THIS TIME’ SHE SAYS). a) This is not all right but it is cheating, not plagiarism b) Plagiarism – and it is not all right c) Plagiarism but it is all right at this stage, but not later in the programme 3. TERRY AND FRAN LIVE IN THE SAME HOUSE. THEY ARE ON THE SAME COURSE AND HENCE HAVE TO PUT IN THE SAME ASSIGNMENTS.

FRAN HAS DIFFICULTIES WITH WRITING BUT SHE REALLY WANTS TO DO WELL IN HER DEGREE. TERRY WOULD LIKE TO GET TO KNOW FRAN BETTER AND SEES THIS AS A WAY OF INCREASING THEIR FRIENDSHIP. HE SUGGESTS THAT SINCE THE CLASS IS LARGE, THEY COULD PUT IN THE SAME ESSAY AND NO-ONE WOULD NOTICE – AND IN THIS WAY HE ‘HELPS’ OUT FRAN, WHO IS VERY GRATEFUL. a) Fran colluded. Terry did not. b) Terry colluded and Fran did not c) They colluded.

4. MIKE USES THE LIBRARY TO FIND THE RELEVANT LITERATURE TO THE ESSAY THAT HE HAS TO WRITE, THEN, USING ONE OF THE ESSAY SITES, BUYS A SIMILAR ESSAY AND INTEGRATES INTO IT THE MATERIAL THAT HE HAS READ. a) It is certain that Mike plagiarised b) Mike did not plagiarise if he cited the sources and paraphrased appropriately c) Mike has plagiarised because he bought the essay 5. MALACHY FOUND THAT HER FRIEND, WHO HAD DONE THE MODULE LAST YEAR, HAD DONE THE SAME EXPERIMENT.

HER FRIEND SUGGESTED THAT MALACHY COULD READ THROUGH 7 WHAT SHE HAD WRITTEN BUT SHE WARNED HER NOT TO COPY IT AS THAT WOULD BE COLLUSION. WITHOUT HER FRIEND KNOWING, MALACHY DID COPY PART OF IT AND PRESENTED IT AS HER OWN. a) Malachy plagiarised her friend’s work b) Malachy and her friend colluded c) Malachy and her friend plagiarised 6. DAMION FINDS THAT AN ESSAY THAT HE HAS DONE IN SCHOOL IS VERY SIMILAR TO ONE HE HAS TO WRITE AT UNIVERSITY.

HE USES HIS SCHOOL ESSAY – BUT UNFORTUNATELY HE DOES NOT HAVE THE REFERENCES PROPERLY RECORDED. HE HAS NAMES CITED IN THE TEXT, BUT NOT DETAILS OF THE SOURCES. HE MAKES UP ONE OR TWO AND THINKS THAT HIS TUTOR WILL PROBABLY NOT WORRY ABOUT THE REST. a) Because it was school work – from a different place, it was all right b) It was all right because it had already been marked c) Damion plagiarised 7. SUE IS A LECTURER.

SHE GIVES A LECTURE TO FIRST YEAR STUDENTS ON CELL BIOLOGY AND TALKS A LOT ABOUT CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RESEARCH, BUT DOES NOT GIVE THE REFERENCES TO THE RESEARCH IN THE LECTURE OR ON HANDOUTS. a) Technically Sue plagiarised b) It is all right. If this had been written work, Sue should have cited correctly – but it was oral c) It is all right not to cite if your are a teacher / lecturer in the process of teaching.

8. TIM AND OONAGH ARE WORKING ON THE SAME ESSAY FOR THEOLOGY. OONAGH FINDS A GOOD WEBSITE THAT IS VERY HELPFUL. IT PROVIDES GOOD MATERIAL ON THE SUBJECT ON WHICH THEY ARE WRITING. SHE TELLS TIM ABOUT IT. THEY BOTH DOWNLOAD CHUNKS OF IT. OONAGH CUTS AND PASTES INTO HER ESSAY AND PUTS A REFERENCE TO THE SITE IN HER REFERENCE LIST. TIM PARAPHRASES FROM THE MATERIAL, ACKNOWLEDGES IT IN THE TEXT AND IN HIS REFERENCE LIST. THE TUTOR WOULD NOT HAVE NOTICED THE SIMILAR MATERIAL BUT FOR THE FACT THAT THE TWO ESSAYS WERE ADJACENT TO EACH OTHER IN THE PILE. a) Tim and Oonagh colluded b) Tim and Oonagh plagiarised.

c) Only one of them plagiarised 9. IN STATISTICS, GEMMA HAS A PROJECT THAT INVOLVES USE OF A QUESTIONNAIRE TO FIND OUT WHAT TELEVISION PROGRAMMES HER FRIENDS WATCH AT A PARTICULAR TIME IN THE EVENING. THIS WILL GENERATE DATA FOR STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. SHE IS ILL FOR A FEW DAYS AND IS RUNNING LATE. SHE MAKES UP SOME OF THE RESPONSES AND USES THEM. a) Gemma plagiarised 8 b) Gemma cheated c) Gemma colluded 10. HARRY INTEGRATES INTO HIS ESSAY, A CHUNK OF HANDOUT MATERIAL FROM HIS LAST YEARS WORK. HE ALTERS SOME WORDS TO FIT BETTER AND SPLITS THE MATERIAL WITH TWO SECTIONS OF HIS OWN WRITING. a) Harry plagiarised.

b) It is all right to quote from handout material without citation c) It would have been all right if Harry had rewritten it more in his own words 11. JAMIE HAS AN ESSAY TO WRITE IN PHILOSOPHY. HE IS NOT VERY GOOD AT WRITING AND HAS DEVELOPED A STYLE WHEREBY HE COPIES DOWN APPROPRIATE QUOTATIONS (CITING THEM APPROPRIATELY) AND THEN PARAPHRASES THE CONTENT OF THE QUOTATION IN THE NEXT PARAGRAPH AS A KIND OF SUMMARY, STEERING THE MEANING TOWARDS ANOTHER QUOTATION AND SO ON. a) So long as Jamie paraphrases appropriately, he is not doing anything wrong b) Jamie is plagiarising c) Jamie should be using appropriate methods of referencing

12. FOR SOPHIA, ENGLISH IS A SECOND LANGUAGE. SHE WANTS TO SUCCEED AND GOES TO A FRIEND WHO SPEAKS BETTER ENGLISH. HER FRIEND GOES THROUGH HER WHOLE ESSAY, CORRECTING THE LANGUAGE ALL THE WAY THROUGH. a) What Sophia is doing is understandable. It is all right b) What Sophia and her friend are doing is not all right. It is a form of collusion c) What Sophia is doing is not all right. It is cheating 13. BILLIE, ED AND JAKE LIVE ARE FOLLOWING THE SAME MODULE. THEY HAVE A PIECE OF WORK TO DO AND GET TOGETHER TO DISCUSS IT. THEY TALK ABOUT THE CONTENT AND DECIDE EACH TO FOLLOW UP TWO REFERENCES AND THEN TO MEET AGAIN TO TALK ABOUT.

WHAT THEY HAVE FOUND. THIS REDUCES THE VOLUME OF READING THEY WILL HAVE TO DO. THEY MEET AGAIN, LISTEN TO EACH OTHER’S DESCRIPTIONS AND WRITE NOTES AND THEN WRITE THE ESSAY SEPARATELY. THEY REFERENCE THE MATERIAL, WHETHER IT IS WHAT THEY HAVE READ OR WHAT THEY HAVE HEARD DESCRIBED. a) Billie, Ed and Jake are colluding b) They are not doing anything wrong if co-operative study is acceptable to the tutor c) Billie, Ed and Jake are deceiving their tutor and therefore cheating 14. LUI FINDS SOME INFORMATION AT A WEBSITE THAT SAYS EXACTLY WHAT HE WANTS TO SAY. IT IS SIX LINES OF TEXT WHICH HE PUTS INTO QUOTATION MARKS.

HE CUTS AND PASTES IT BUT BY MISTAKE LEAVES THE ORIGINAL FONT. HE CITES IT IN THE TEXT AND PUTS THE WEBSITE ADDRESS IN THE REFERENCE LIST WITH THE DATE OF ACCESS. HIS TUTOR CALLS HIM IN… 9 a) Lui cheated b) He plagiarised c) What Lui did is all right. 15. CHARLIE KNOWS A REALLY GOOD WEBSITE THAT WILL HELP HIM A GREAT DEAL IN THE PROJECT WORK THAT HIS HAS BEEN SET. HE IS WORKING IN A TEAM, BUT THE WORK THAT THE TEAM DOES MUST BE WRITTEN UP SEPARATELY. INITIALLY HE MENTIONS THE WEBSITE, BUT GIVES NO ADDRESS – AND THEN REALISES THAT HE WOULD PREFER TO USE IT AS A REFERENCE FOR HIS INDIVIDUAL WORK.

WHEN THE OTHERS ASK FOR DETAILS OF THE SITE, HE IS VAGUE AND THEN GIVES THE WRONG WEB ADDRESS TO THEM. a) Charlie is rightly not colluding with his team b) Charlie is not working co-operatively in his team c) Charlie is plagiarising – and it is just as well he did not pass on the information 16. AARON IS WRITING UP A REPORT. HE FINDS A TEXT BOOK THAT IS NOT THE ONE USED IN CLASS AND USES IT TO GET MUCH OF THE INFORMATION THAT HE REQUIRES. HE REFERS TO THE WORK OF JONDA (1998) THAT IS DESCRIBED AND REFERENCED IN THE TEXTBOOK. ARON CITES JONDA IN THE TEXT AND THEN REFERENCES IT TO THE TEXT BOOK IN HIS LIST OF REFERENCES.

a) Aaron is behaving with academic honesty, his citations are fine b) Aaron is technically plariarising – he should have cited the original source, not the textbook c) Aaron is colluding with the writer of the textbook 17. TOM FINDS A HELPFUL ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL. HE PHOTOCOPIES IT AND COPIES FROM IT INTO HIS ESSAY, ALTERNATING SENTENCES OF THE ARTICLE WITH HIS OWN WORDS, AND NEVER COPYING MORE THAN A LINE WITHOUT ADDING HIS OWN WORDS OR ALTERING WORDS FROM THE TEXT. HE CITES THE ARTICLE IN HIS BIBLIOGRAPHY, BUT NOT IN THE TEXT BECAUSE HE DOES NOT FEEL THAT HE MAKES A SUFFICIENTLY SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO IT. a) Tom is cheating.

b) Tom is plagiarising c) Tom is writing a good essay. He has properly cited the reference in his bibliography 18. AMY OMITS TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE MATERIAL THAT SHE HAS QUOTED. IT WAS A MISTAKE. a) Amy made a mistake and because she is a first year that is all right b) Amy plagiarised. c) Amy did not plagiarise because not referencing was unintentional 10 Exercise 2: What reasons do students give for academic misconduct? THINK OF FIVE EXCUSES THAT STUDENTS MIGHT MAKE FOR PLAGIARISING, COLLUDING OR CHEATING. SOME EXCUSES ARE UNDERSTANDABLE BUT THEY ARE AGAINST THE ACADEMIC CONVENTIONS THAT WE MAINTAIN WITHIN AN ACADEMIC COMMUNITY.

THERE IS A LIST OF POSSIBLE RESPONSES AT THE END OF THE UNIT – THOUGH YOU MAY HAVE THOUGH OF OTHERS. The further information and skills that you need for academic honesty WE HAVE SAID THAT YOU NEED SOME INFORMATION, A SET OF SKILLS AND ASSOCIATED GOOD HABITS FOR YOUR ACADEMIC WORK. WE HAVE DESCRIBED ABOVE THE BASICS OF WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT, PLAGIARISM AND COLLUSION BUT BEFORE WE LOOK AT THE SKILLS AND GOOD HABITS, THERE IS MORE TO SAY ABOUT WHY WE REFERENCE MATERIAL (REMEMBER REFERENCING, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND CITATION MEAN THE SAME THING). Further reasons for referencing.

WE SAID ABOVE THAT WHEN WE USE THE IDEA OF ANOTHER, WE REFERENCE IT AND INDICATE THE SOURCE OF IT. IN TERMS OF PLAGIARISM, THIS IS IN ORDER TO DEMONSTRATE THAT IT IS AN IDEA THAT WAS GENERATED BY ANOTHER PERSON – AND TO ACKNOWLEDGE THAT PERSON FOR THE IDEA. HOWEVER IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO REFERENCE AN IDEA IN ORDER TO SHOW ANOTHER PERSON HOW TO FIND THAT IDEA SHOULD S/HE WANT TO SEEK READ MORE OF IT. IN ACADEMIC WRITING, IN ORDER TO FURTHER YOUR OWN THINKING, IT IS USUAL TO FOLLOW UP REFERENCES THAT SOMEONE ELSE HAS GIVEN IN THEIR REFERENCE LIST. SEEKING AND FINDING INFORMATION BECOMES A KIND OF TRAIL.

SO A SECOND REASON FOR REFERENCING IS TO ENABLE OTHERS TO FIND THE IDEAS FOR THEMSELVES IN ORDER TO SEEK MORE INFORMATION. THE THIRD REASON FOR REFERENCING IS SO THAT ANYONE READING YOUR WORK (SUCH AS A TUTOR) CAN SEE HOW YOUR THINKING HAS BEEN DEVELOPED. WHEN YOU DO ACADEMIC WRITING YOU WORK WITH YOUR OWN IDEAS AND THOSE OF OTHERS IN ORDER TO RESPOND TO THE TASK SET. IT IS NOT USUALLY JUST A MATTER OF ‘WRITE AS MUCH AS YOU CAN ABOUT…(SOMETHING)’ IN HIGHER EDUCATION, BUT THE QUESTION OR TASK WILL REQUIRE YOU TO ‘MANIPULATE’ WHAT YOU KNOW – TO EXPLAIN, TO COMPARE OR COMPARE AND CONTRAST AND SO ON.

WHEN YOU USE THE IDEAS OF OTHERS, IT IS IMPORTANT FOR YOUR TUTOR TO BE ABLE TO SEE HOW MUCH YOU HAVE READ, WHAT YOU HAVE READ AND HOW YOU HAVE USED AND MANIPULATED THE IDEAS IN ORDER TO MEET THE TASK SET IN THE ASSIGNMENT.

LOOKING AT A REFERENCE LIST FOR THIS PURPOSE IS A FORM OF EVALUATION 11 YOU MAY THINK THAT SUCH EVALUATION ONLY HAPPENS WHEN YOU ARE A STUDENT. THIS IS NOT THE CASE. ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH WRITING IN JOURNALS AND BOOKS IS ALSO SUBJECTED TO EVALUATION – THIS TIME BY PEERS. SUCH RESEARCH WRITING USUALLY DEVELOPS NEW KNOWLEDGE. ONE OF THE WAYS IN WHICH THIS NEW KNOWLEDGE CAN BE.

JUDGED BY THOSE WHO MIGHT USE IT, IS BY LOOKING AT THE LIST OF REFERENCES TO SEE WHAT KIND OF IDEAS HAVE FORMED THE BASIS TO THE NEW KNOWLEDGE. SOMETIMES THIS ‘BASIS’ IS IN THE FORM OF WHAT WE WOULD CALL ‘EVIDENCE’. MANY ACADEMICS WILL TURN TO THE REFERENCE LIST AS SOON AS THEY ARE GIVEN SOMETHING TO READ – IN ORDER TO SEE WHAT WORK THIS IS BASED ON.

What do you not have to reference? NOT ALL IDEAS ARE CONSIDERED TO BELONG TO OTHERS. MOST OF WHAT WE KNOW IS ‘COMMON KNOWLEDGE’. THIS IS KNOWLEDGE THAT IS IN ‘EVERYDAY’ USE, OR IS IN THE COMMON DOMAIN OR IT IS KNOWLEDGE ABOUT WHICH WE COULD SAY THAT MOST PEOPLE.

AGREE. IT IS THE SORT OF KNOWLEDGE THAT IS FOUND IN REFERENCE BOOKS – IN ENCYCLOPEDIAS OR DICTIONARIES. WE DO NOT NEED TO REFERENCE COMMON KNOWLEDGE, THOUGH USUALLY, IF YOU DO TAKE A DEFINITION FROM A DICTIONARY, YOU WILL CITE ITS SOURCE SO THAT OTHERS CAN FIND IT. WE DO NOT NEED TO REFERENCE IDEAS THAT ARE GENUINELY OUR OWN EITHER. IF THE IDEA IS ONE GENERATED BY YOU, BUT THAT YOU HAVE DESCRIBED IN YOUR OWN WORK ELSEWHERE, THEN IT IS GOOD PRACTICE TO REFERENCE IT TO THE FIRST OCCASION ON WHICH IT HAS BEEN USED (IE TO YOUR OWN NAME). THIS MAY BE MAINLY SO THAT OTHERS CAN FIND IT FOR INFORMATION PURPOSES.

THE RULES ABOUT CITATION OF LECTURE AND HANDOUT MATERIAL ARE MORE FUZZY – TECHNICALLY YOU SHOULD SAY WHERE YOU HEARD ABOUT AN IDEA AS MUCH AS WHERE YOU READ ABOUT IT. HOWEVER, SOMETIMES THAT WOULD GET RIDICULOUS. IMAGINE HOW YOU WOULD MANAGE A QUESTION IN AN EXAM THAT ASKS YOU TO DESCRIBE SOMETHING THAT HAS BEEN DESCRIBED IN THE LECTURE.

IT COULD BECOME VERY DIFFICULT. YOU NEED TO ASK YOUR LECTURERS AND TUTORS WHAT PRACTICE TO FOLLOW HERE. THEY MAY FEEL THAT YOU DO NOT NEED TO CITE LECTURES, BUT THAT YOU SHOULD CITE HANDOUT MATERIAL – AND THEY MAY NOT ALL AGREE ON THE SAME RESPONSE.

IN ALL OF THIS YOU MAY NOT ALWAYS BE SURE WHETHER OR NOT TO CITE. A RULE BY WHICH TO WORK IS – IF IN DOUBT, CITE! SO – TO SUMMARISE: THERE ARE AT LEAST THREE REASONS WHY WE REFERENCE MATERIAL – -TO DEMONSTRATE THAT WE HAVE USED ANOTHER’S IDEA; -TO SHOW ANOTHER WHERE TO FIND THE SOURCE OF THE IDEAS USED; -TO ALLOW ANOTHER TO EVALUATE THE QUALITY OF OUR REASONING.

The skills that you need 12 IN TERMS OF SKILLS, – YOU NEED TO BE ABLE TO: -DIFFERENTIATE MATERIAL THAT NEEDS CITATION FROM THAT THAT DOES NOT NEED CITATION; -USE IN-TEXT REFERENCING; -WRITE AN APPROPRIATE REFERENCE LIST AND UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE.

BETWEEN THIS AND A BIBLIOGRAPHY; -DEVELOP GOOD HABITS OF RECORD-KEEPING; -WORK APPROPRIATELY WITH QUOTATIONS; -MANAGE THE PRESENTATION OF OTHERS’ IDEAS IN WRITTEN WORK. (THE LIST IS MODIFIED FROM CARROLL, 2002)

The ability to differentiate material that needs attribution from that that does not need attribution; YOU NEED TO KNOW AND TO BE ABLE TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN WHAT DOES AND DOES NOT REQUIRE CITATION – THE FOLLOWING DO NOT NEED TO BE CITED: -COMMON KNOWLEDGE – WHICH WE HAVE DEFINED AS THAT IN EVERYDAY USE, IN THE COMMON DOMAIN; -FACTS THAT ARE GENERALLY AGREED, OR THAT ARE COMMON TO A VARIETY OF SOURCES;

-PERSONAL IDEAS, SUGGESTIONS ETC. THE FOLLOWING NEED TO BE CITED: -DIRECT QUOTATIONS; -REFERENCES TO OTHERS’ IDEAS EXPRESSED ORALLY OR ON PAPER OR WEB-BASED MATERIALS ETC; -REFERENCES TO A REFERENCE ALREADY CITED BY ANOTHER IN A TEXT; -PARAPHRASES, PRECIS AND SUMMARIES OF OTHERS’ QUOTATIONS OR IDEAS; -OTHERS’ STATISTICS, FIGURES, CHARTS, TABLES, PICTURES GRAPHS ETC;

-REFERENCES TO MATERIAL WITHIN AN EDITED TEXT. CLEARLY IT REQUIRES JUDGEMENT TO DECIDE WHAT DOES AND DOES NOT NEED TO BE CITED – AND IF IN DOUBT, CITE! Use of in-text referencing THIS IS A MATTER OF UNDERSTANDING HOW TO CITE IN TEXT AND HOW TO CONSTRUCT A REFERENCE LIST. THERE ARE DIFFERENT CONVENTIONS, AND SOMETIMES THERE ARE VARIABLE INTERPRETATIONS OF THE CONVENTION ADOPTED. SOME USE REFERENCE LISTS AT THE END OF THE TEXT, SOME WORK WITH FOOTNOTES OR ENDNOTES THAT ARE LINKED FROM THE TEXT BY NUMBER OR LETTER. 13 E. G. (1) OR (A).

IN THESE CASES, THE DETAILS OF NAME, DATE AND SOURCE ARE EITHER AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGE OR LISTED BY NUMBER OR LETTER SEQUENCE AT THE END OF THE ARTICLE OR BOOK. REFERENCES MAY BE MIXED WITH NOTES. HARVARD IS A VERY COMMON SYSTEM IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS. E. G. …IN THE HARVARD SYSTEM – THE NAME AND DATE IS PUT IN THE TEXT (E. G.DIPPIDY, 1999) AND IN THE REFERENCE LIST AT THE END OF THE ARTICLE OR THE BOOK, THE REFERENCES ARE LISTED ALPHABETICALLY WITH THE FURTHER DETAILS OF SOURCE.

DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES TEND TO ADOPT DIFFERENT CONVENTIONS, AND ACADEMIC JOURNALS AND PUBLISHERS OFTEN DIFFER IN THE CONVENTIONS ADOPTED, SO YOU WILL COME ACROSS DIFFERENT STYLES IN YOUR READING. USUALLY IN UNDERGRADUATE STUDIES, YOU WILL BE TOLD TO WORK TO A PARTICULAR CONVENTION BUT YOU MAY NEED TO LEARN TO BE MORE FLEXIBLE. IT IS NOT WORTH REBELLING IN THIS MATTER.

THERE ARE USUALLY HANDOUTS OR BOOKLETS THAT PROVIDE ILLUSTRATION OF THIS. IF YOU DO NOT KNOW WHAT SYSTEM OF REFERENCING TO USE, ASK. MAKE SURE THAT WITHIN THE SYSTEM YOU USE, YOU KNOW HOW TO DEAL WITH THE FOLLOWING: – QUOTATIONS (SEE BELOW ALSO); – DIRECT REFERENCES TO WRITTEN AND SPOKEN WORD; – REFERENCES CITED WITHIN ANOTHER TEXT – TO WHICH YOU WANT TO REFER; – PARAPHRASES OR SUMMARIES OF OTHERS’ IDEAS;

– THE CITATION OF STATISTICS AND FIGURATIVE MATERIAL; – REFERENCES WITHIN EDITED TEXTS, WEB-BASED MATERIALS, CD-ROMS. THERE MAY BE OTHER SOURCES THAT YOU WANT TO CITE. YOU DO NOT NEED TO KNOW ALL THIS ‘BY HEART’, BUT HAVE ACCESS TO A GOOD GUIDE TO REFERENCING AS YOU WORK AND MAKE SURE THAT IT USES THE APPROPRIATE STYLE.

IF YOUR FEEL THAT YOUR GUIDE-BOOK IS NOT HELPFUL, LOOK AT STUDY SKILLS BOOKS OR LOOK ON THE WEB FOR THE SYSTEM YOU NEED. THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES OFTEN HAVE USEFUL MATERIAL The layout of a reference list and its distinction from a bibliography A REFERENCE LIST IS A LIST OF THE REFERENCES TO WHICH YOU HAVE REFERRED IN YOUR TEXT.

A BIBLIOGRAPHY IS A REFERENCE LIST TO WHICH IS ADDED ANY EXTRA MATERIAL THAT MIGHT PROVIDE GENERAL OR FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT THE TOPIC. IN ACADEMIC WORK, MOSTLY IT WILL BE REFERENCE LISTS WITH WHICH YOU WORK.


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