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Is Development Determined in the Womb?

Introduction Lifecycle or lifespan development is the field in psychology that studies how people change with time. These changes could be biological, including body changes and motor skills; cognitive, including thought and language; and psychosocial, including emotions, personality and relationships with other people. Life cycle development starts in the womb at conception and continues throughout the individual’s life. Other important stages of development are; birth, infancy, adolescence, adulthood, old age and finally death. Though some aspects of development may be strongly influenced by how the fetus develops in the womb, the genes one receives from his/her parents interact with the environmental factors after the individual is born such as the food one eats, parenting, experiences, friends, family relationships, culture and…

Population Genetics (Fruit Fly)

OVERVIEW: In this lab the Drosophila melanogaster fly species were used to do genetic test crosses. Students were taught how to manipulate phenotypes, collect data from F1 through the F4 generations, and analyze the results.INTRODUCTION: The basic principles of genetics are very often shared by a vast array of organisms. For that reason, it is usually only necessary to study the genetic structure of a few organisms, in order to gain a general understanding of how it works in many others. Microevolution results due to the changes in allelelic frequencies that occur over time within a population. This type of evolution is calculated by a model used in population genetics called the Hardy Weinberg equation. The Hardy-Weinberg equation allows researchers…

Gregor Mendel, a Roman Catholic Monk

A Roman Catholic monk, Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), was raised on a farm and enjoyed gardening and mathematics. In 1856 he started to experiment with pea plants to explain why certain traits that appeared in one generation did not always reappear in the next generation. During eight years Mendel mixed over 30,000 plants by controlling their pollination and wanted to know why the results came to be. Mendel noticed that although there were some traits that were common amongst all the pea plants there was over a dozen traits that were not such as seed coat color and texture. By cross breeding pea plants, each with a certain trait, he noticed that one trait seemed to overpower the other. By knowing…

Fly Lab Instructions

Answer questions on a separate sheet of paper. Be sure to answer all parts of each question. Make sure you number all questions EXACTLY as they are numbered on this worksheet. This assignment will be turned in at the beginning of class before the quiz. Late assignments WILL NOT be accepted. DON’T FORGET: Fly lab/epistasis assignment on pgs. 41-42 in lab manual is also due at the beginning of lab. Assignment 1: Getting to Know FlyLab: Performing Monohybrid, Dihybrid, and Trihybrid Crosses 1.c. Based on what you know about the principles of Mendelian genetics, predict the phenotypic ratio that you would expect to see for the F1 offspring of this cross and describe the phenotype of each fly. 1.d. Are…

Computerized Library System

Chromosomal aberrations are disruptions in the normal chromosomal content of a cell and are a major cause of genetic conditions in humans, such as Down syndrome, although most aberrations have little to no effect. Some chromosome abnormalities do not cause disease in carriers, such as translocations, or chromosomal inversions, although they may lead to a higher chance of bearing a child with a chromosome disorder. Abnormal numbers of chromosomes or chromosome sets, called aneuploidy, may be lethal or may give rise to genetic disorders. Genetic counseling is offered for families that may carry a chromosome rearrangement. The gain or loss of DNA from chromosomes can lead to a variety of genetic disorders. Human examples include: * Cri du chat, which…

Gregor Mendel for Kids

Gregor Mendel, also known as “The Father of Genetics” was an Austrian monk that made a huge discovery about genetics because of his mini garden full of pea plants.  What made Mendel come to this experiment was because of the different phenotype or traits of the pea plants. Some were tall and some were short. Some plants either had purple or white flowers. Gregor observed each trait and saw how they were passed down to the offspring plants. After breeding plants, Gregor Mendel learned that there are dominant traits that show in the plant, and that there are recessive traits that hide behind the dominant. He also found out that if short and tall plants bred, they would create a…

American Born Chinese

1.Yang uses humor to illustrate difficult or painful situations in the novel. Why does he do this? Explain how Yang uses humor to impart a message to readers. Provide at least three specific examples from the novel in your essay. American Born Chinese written by Gene Luen Yang. In the beginning there are three story that are very different from the others story in the book. In the beginning this story talks about this monkey king and how he cannot go the party because he is a monkey. The next story is about Jin Wang going to school and he just moved from San Francisco but everyone thought he was from China because he is Chinese. Later on this new…

Alcoholism: Nature vs Nurture

A recent study by Dr. Ming D. Li shows that alcoholism (the addiction to alcohol) may actually be linked to a genetic trait- making alcoholism a product of nature. Dr. Li is the head of neurobiology at the University of Virginia, and states that this research is “unique” because it shows that a single gene variation- one which alters the brain’s control of serotonin, a mood influencing neurological chemical- is connected to a kind of behavior: alcoholism. “This research really takes the next step down the line,” said Dr. Robert Philbert, Director of the Laboratory of Psychiatric Genetics at the University of Iowa. Though this research does prove that nature (or genetics) is the cause of alcoholism, the study says…

Brassica Rapa

ABSTRACT The Brassica rapa is a rapid growing plant that has a standard form and a mutant rosette form. Relative to normal plants, the rosette form is shorter and takes longer to flower. The mode of inheritance of the rosette gene was tested by crossing two true-breeding plants, one of each form. The F1 generation was then cross-pollinated to produce an F2 generation. The phenotypes of each generation were recorded and a chi-square test was performed. The F1 offspring were almost entirely standard form, and the F2 followed the Mendelian ratio of three standard to one rosette. This supported the idea that the rosette allele is recessive to the standard form, and that it follows Mendel’s law of segregation. INTRODUCTION…

Genetics of Organisms

Link for flylab: You will be using a sample subscription, so once you sign up you will only have access for 24 hours. It is important to do all the pre-work before logging in to get your experimental numbers. Click on the fly lab button. After reading through the lab and understanding what you will be doing, click on start lab. Introduction FlyLab will allow you to play the role of a research geneticist. You will use FlyLab to study important introductory principles of genetics by developing hypotheses and designing and conducting matings between fruit flies with different mutations that you have selected. Once you have examined the results of a simulated cross, you can perform a statistical test of…

Polydactyle Case

Polydactyle is a genetic disorder that is caused by a gene on chromosome seven. Polydactyle is a condition were an individual has more than five digits per hand. Most cases are isolated and not related to any other disorder but some are related to others. The errors occur during fetal development and they are caused by on several mutations on a gene that is known as chromosome seven. Polydactlyle is Autosomal dominant meaning that an offspring can get this disease by having it passed down from just one parent. During normal embryonic development while the infant is still in the womb the hand of the infant will most likely form a shape of a paddle. Following six to seven weeks…

“Gem X” by Nicky Singer and Genetic Engineering

The Science Fiction Book Project is a physics project in which students describe an example of science fiction and the scientific feasibility of the author’s ideas. It promotes the school improvement writing goal by allowing a student to pick a book of their choice read it, research one topic in the book, and write a scientific paper discussing the future of the science of their chosen topic. The book chosen for this project is “Gem X” by Nicky Singer. In the book, Maxo is a GemX (who1). A GemX is a being who is genetically manipulated to be flawless. Maxo, having the top gene line up and being intelligent and handsome, is the epitome of perfect. He lives in the…

DNA Discovery Essay

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, it is located in the nuclei of cells which make up the body. DNA is quite often referred to as one of the building blocks of the body.. It is made up of four bases known as: •Adenine •Guanine •Cytosine •Thymine James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin Crick and Watson, together with Maurice Wilkins, won the 1962 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their 1953 determination of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) this was one of the most significant scientific discoveries of the 20th century. James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the molecular structure of DNA model of the structure resembled a twisted rope ladder. They proposed that…

Labeling of Gmos

Two main opposing viewpoints exist with regard to GMO food policy labeling; some sources suggest that consumers are unconcerned and do not want any labeling, while others indicate the opposite. However, one flaw existing in past research is that many GM labeling studies regard the issue as one in which the consumer’s only desire for information is about whether or not the foods they purchase are in fact genetically modified. Another flaw is that old studies often refer to the GM technology in vague and/or imprecise terms, leaving it up to the consumer to make finer distinctions. The objective of this study was to identify if consumers differ in their risk/benefit evaluation of genetically modified foods and how these differences…

Genetic Engineering on Humans

Visualize a world where anyone can do anything, regardless of age or physical conditions. Nobody would age nor develop any illnesses or disorders. Essentially, this would be a society in which everyone is perfect. Such a thought would be the result of genetic engineering, which is the modification of an organism’s genome using biotechnology. Scientists alter the genetic makeup of an organism by using techniques that remove inherited material or inject DNA from outside the organism either directly into the host or into a cell that is then crossbred with the host (Clapper, 2013). The goal of genetically modifying organisms is to fix imperfections and improve their capabilities. In humans, genes that cause diseases and disorders can be identified and…

Genetically modified food

The past score of years has witnessed the astonishing revolution in the scope of plant breeding technologies. The biological technologies have regularly been utilized to create new gene combinations for progressing crop diversities. This intentionally modified by the manipulation of the DNA, and transformation of certain genes to create new variations of life, which called genetically modified (GM) food. There is presently some debate about whether to accept GM food. The disadvantages of GM food are labelling issue and transformation of certain genes might lead to environmental issues. Nevertheless, there are also a number of crucial advantages such as farmers could improve their economic benefits and GM food could improve the nutritional quality to prevent disease. Therefore, this essay will…

Biological approach to health and social care

The biological approach can be used to explain many thing within health and social care, it can also be useful in diagnosing and treating service users, and is effective for practitioners to asses and help their patience within heath care and social care alike. The biological approach can have a positive impact on the service user because tests such as the assessment scale are available so that they can fully understand why there behaviour is the way it is, and also what is normal and abnormal for their age. It is useful for practitioners to know if the influence of genetics has anything to do with a person’s behaviour so that they can give the service user the best possible…

Genetically Modified Food and Crops

Abstract Since the 1980’s scientists have been altering crops, including some of the food we eat (Fairly & Gaskins, 2000). Genetically modified food has always been a concern for many people. I find the concerns to be unwarranted because there has never been a negative health report due to the fact of consuming GM foods. Biotechnology gives us the best means for solving the world’s food shortage now and in the future. Genetically modified crop plants are now grown on nearly 150 million acres in the United States alone, helping farmers to increase yields, reduce pesticide spraying, and save topsoil (Conko & Miller, 2011). What are we actually eating? Looking at ingredients on the back of a product was almost…

Heredity, the Environment, and Development

The field of behavioral genetics strives to understand how and why we develop the way we do. Behavioral genetics seeks to find how not only heredity, but also environment, plays a role in the development of human beings. The field has evolved quite a bit in the last few years. Studying genetics helps us to be able to predict future behaviors and also potentially help us to use genetic engineering. Since the study of behavioral genetics can potentially lead us down the road of genetic engineering it attracts a lot of controversy. As will be examined here genetics shows some strong correlations between heredity and environment. The field has studied numerous examples to help explain what is caused by heredity,…

Drosophila: Fruit Fly Lab

The history of fruit flies is considered a tradition. Research of these flies initially entered labs 100 years ago. Thomas Hunt Morgan, who lived from 1866 to 1945, was the founder of drosophila genetics. Thomas preformed his research in Morgan lab at the Columbia University in 1910. Here was when they found a famous mutation, know as the white-eyed fly. Quite an accomplishment was this discovery, but the end of the 1980’s there were 3,000+-recorded mutations. Now drosophila is very popular; so popular, it would be almost impossible to list the number of things that are being done with it. However, fruit-fly research relates to human genetics as well. It conveys that genes were related to proteins, therefore referring to…

Heredity, the Environment and Development

The study of genetics has grown out of a desire to understand how exactly the individual comes to be just that, an individual different from its peers. In order to comprehend the scope of possible outcomes and how they came to be behavioral genetics looks at a number of variables; these include the impact of our genes (nature), and our environment (nurture). A countless number of hypotheses were put to the test through research to analyze the degree of influence of each. In this paper, team A will discuss the methods of behavioral genetics, the various research techniques used, their testing populations and why used, along with proposed answers and explanations. Behavioral GeneticsBehavioral geneticists uses family, twin and adoption studies…

Fruit Fly Experiment: Conclusion

10. Errors and Redesign. Throughout this experiment a number of random and procedural errors were apparent; these errors could have affected the results of the experiment in a number of ways. One experimental error that occurred during the experiment was that some flies became stuck in the food source and died. The main cause of this was the fact that the fly vials were stood up (vertically) before the flies had fully recovered from the anaesthetic. This could be overcome in future experiments by ensuring that the vials are kept horizontal until all of the flies fully recover from the anaesthetic. One possible error that may have occurred was that some of the adult flies may have accidentally been left…

Definition of Cloning

Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of an original. It is a single cell or multi-cellular organism that is genetically identical to another living organism. Cloning can also occur when two genetically identical individuals are produced by accident like identical twins, but in common scientific language the clone is an identical copy by some conscious design. Cloning an organism is to create a new organism with the same genetic information as an existing one. This can involve the transfer of a cell nuclear in which the nucleus is removed from an egg cell and replaced with a nucleus extracted from a cell of the organism to be cloned. AS the nucleus contains all of the genetic information…

Frankensteins Cat

In China, the world’s manufacturing powerhouse, a new industry is taking shape: the mass production of mutant mice. Peek into the 45,000 mouse cages at Shanghai’s Fudan University and you’ll see a growing collection of misfits. By randomly disabling the rodents’ genes, the scientists here are churning out hundreds of odd animals, assembly-line style. They have created mice studded with skin tumors and mice that grow tusks. There’s a mouse with male-pattern baldness, hair everywhere save for a lonely bare spot on its head. Some of the mice have strange behavioral quirks—they endlessly bury marbles, for instance, or make only left turns. One strain ages at warp speed. Another can’t feel pain. While some of the rodents have obvious abnormalities,…

The structure of DNA

-DNA is a polymer of nucleotides -Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group -The sugar in DNA is a pentose sugar called deoxyribose -The different kinds of bases are adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine -In DNA, there is a 1:1 ratio of nucleotide bases: number of adenine = number of thymine and number of guanine = number of cytosine -DNA consists of 2 strands in a shape called a double helix -Double helix is 2-nm in diameter -The strands have a sugar-phosphate backbone -The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds -The rungs of the helix consist of purine/pyrimidine rings -Adenine and guanine are purines -Purines have two organic rings -Cytosine and thymine…

Genetics of Ascospore Color in Sordaria lab

Introduction: To achieve genetic experiments with haploid organisms, genetic strains of different genotypes must be crossed from one another. Following fertilization and meiosis, the meiotic products can be analyzed as the ascomycete fungus, Sordaria fimicola. Sordaria can be used as a model to study meiotic segregation. The trait followed was the ascospore color. Ascospore color is a single gene trait therefore it is easily observed under a light microspore. Which allele is dominant is very tough to say, because dominant and recessive does not apply in this case. Sexual spores are confined in a saclike form called asci (singular – ascus). Inside the asci, karyogamy occurs and combines the two parental genomes, and then meiosis forms genetically diverse ascospores. Eight…

Kantian Ethics concerning human Cloning

Cloning is a procedure conceived to notion in the late 1960s, but it is only recently that it was fully understood and that scientists have started to figure out how to successfully copy the genetic composition of one organism to another. Since science already knows how to do this, the only problems and obstacles that remains is efficiency and the success ratio of each operation. The cloning process consists of taking the nucleus of an organism, and placing it, along with the DNA that contains all the genetic material, in place of the nucleus of the host egg. The egg then forms an embryo and matures into the same exact “copy”, at least genetically, as the original organism. Already done…

Cystic Fibrosis Case Study

Consult your textbook and trustworthy Internet sites to answer the following questions: 1. Which organs are affected by cystic fibrosis? What are the disease symptoms? Organs that are affected by cystic fibrosis include the lungs, pancreas, liver, sweat glands, reproductive organs, nose and sinuses. The symptoms of cystic fibrosis include coughing with mucus coming up, wheezing, breathlessness, decrease in ability to exercise, lung infections, inflamed nasal passages, stuffy nose, bad growth, intestinal blockage, severe constipation and greasy foul smelling stool. 2. Draw a pedigree showing the family history for CF in Sarah’s and Michael’s families. Be sure to distinguish between individuals with the disease, those that are carriers for the disease, and individuals who do not possess a copy of…

Translation of the DNA code

1 Describe how the DNA code is translated into messenger RNA. DNA is translated into messenger RNA through transcription and translation. DNA is split through transcription and then it is translated to match into RNA. 2 How is the RNA molecule a “script” for the protein production process? RNA is a script for the protein production process because they set the RNA up to translate into a protein. 3 What is the function of hemoglobin in the body? Hemoglobin functions in the body by giving oxygen to the blood. Conclusion 3.2.2 4 Describe (in words) the effect of the mutation. If only one base is affected, it is called a point mutation. This results from substitution. When segments are added…

The Genetic Code

Introduction In the previous activity, you learned how DNA encodes the instructions for creating proteins. You also learned about the basics of the process of protein synthesis. In this activity you will apply your knowledge of transcription and translation to decode a secret message as well as investigate the effect that various mutations have on protein production. You will then look specifically at the genetic mutation that causes sickle cell disease. Transcribing and Translating the Genetic Code 1. Work through the Transcribe and Translate a Gene animation from the Learn.Genetics: Genetic Learning Center’s website, available from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/molecules/transcribe/. 2. Note that in this activity, you will simulate the protein synthesis process. In this simulation, you will translate the code and join…