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Gas Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Rising Gas Prices

There are many different elements that contribute to rising gasoline prices. The major cause for increasing gasoline prices has to do with refining capacity. Even if oil were inexpensive, we would still have a problem converting it into the gas that fuels our economy. That is what keeps the gas prices high. When gas supplies are short, due to an “inability to refine crude oil into gas efficiently,” prices increase. This is a component of supply and demand economics. In a positive aspect, rising gasoline prices do serve a purpose; they curtail usage so that we do not eventually run out of fuel. If gasoline continued to retain its cheap price, despite how much was available, people may pull up…

The price at the gas

The price at the gas pump seems outrageous as the national average price per gallon hits $3. 09, but the real tragedy of the rising prices is in the unseen affects across the spectrum of daily life. While several surveys have said people are not changing much due to the rising cost of gas, they are doing some things and the rising cost of gas has affects that people do not even realize. In some cases, the effect of the effect is the real news. At the grocery store, people are not even equating the rising cost of groceries with the cost of fuel, but it is a major factor. Consciously or not, people are traveling less and putting off…

Welding joins

Joining is a term, which covers processes such as welding, brazing, soldering, adhesive bonding, and mechanical joining. These processes are an important and necessary aspect of manufacturing operations. This paper deals with one topic in particular ‘Welding’. Welding is a process for joining similar metals. Welding joins metals by melting and fusing the base metals being joined and the filler metal applied. Welding employs pinpointed, localized heat input. Most welding involves ferrous-based metals such as steel and stainless steel. Welding covers a temperature range of 1500º F – 3000º F. Weld joints are usually stronger than or as strong as the base metals being joined. Typically, welding is used for forging, farrier, blacksmithing, oil pipelines, and food equipment applications. Now,…

Methane Production from Municipal Solid Waste

Introduction Archaeological investigations of landfills have revealed that biodegradable wastes can be found — virtually intact — 25 years after burial. We know that landfills contain bacteria with the metabolic capability to degrade many of the materials that are common components of municipal refuse. The persistence for decades of degradable materials in the presence of such organisms appears somewhat paradoxical. In this experiment students will explore the factors that influence biodegradation of waste materials in landfills. Although recycling has significantly reduced the amount of landfill space dedicated to paper and other lignocellulosics, paper products are still a significant fraction of the solid waste stream. In this laboratory students will measure the rate and extent of anaerobic degradation of newsprint, Kraft…

Hybrid Power: Running Without Gas

Energy is the ultimate addiction of civilization. The industries, transportation vehicles, and several other technologies are powered by energy. Automobiles are one of the highly-used technologies today, since it provides man an efficient mode of transport. Most vehicles are powered by gasoline obtained from the world’s different petroleum reservoirs. The big issue is that petroleum is a non-renewable form of energy, and sooner or later, it will reach depletion. Through that process, the cost of gasoline will continue to soar. This is the reason why alternative car technologies are being introduced. Hybrid cars and Electric cars are beginning to rattle the car industries today. They offer promises of economical advantages and environmental solutions. But which of these cars are actually…

Lab Report-Butane

The purpose of the lab was to determine the molecular mass of Butane, and this was done by using the ideal gas law (PV=nRT). The materials used were: match, funnel, bucket, cylinder, thermometer, lighter, scale, and a wooden flynt. These materials are used to help collect and test the Butane gas. Butane gas was used because it is ideal at standard temperature and pressure. Procedure: 1. Rinse bucket and fill three fourths full. 2. Rinse all glassware. 3. Place thermometer in bucket. 4. Record P= 760.4mm of Hg, 1.03 atm. 5. Record temperature. 22 C o 295 oK. 6. Weigh dried lighter 13.5 gms (before) and 13.4 grams (after) then record loss of gas after completing the experiment .1 gms(subtract…

Bhopal Gas Tragedy

Bhopal Gas Tragedy is known to be a cataclysmic in the industrial world, an incident occurring at the Union Carbide plant located in Bhopal, India (Bhargava 1). The complex reverberations of such a prevalent disaster continued to send quivers through a company, an industry, political and bureaucratic leadership of a nation, and the lawful and policy instruments by which two countries India and the United States had previously sought to reimburse the victims of the tragedy (Jasanoff 1). This disaster had collosal consequences for India’s populace and has come to be known as the Hiroshima of the Chemical Industry. This paper presents detail incident of Bhopal gas tragedy, intense impact on victims suffered from a dreaded industrial disaster and analysis…

What is Sublimation

1. Sublimation The transitions of a substance from the solid phase directly to the vapour phase, or vice versa, without passing through an intermediate liquid phase. 2. Sublimation is the process of a solid changing form a gas to a solid without going to the liquid state and vice versa. An example of sublimation is the ice cubes in freezer over a period of time they will begin to sublimate due to the temperature. This also happens when you place your clothes on a line outside when it is below freezing. The water freezes then sublimates and your clothes will be dry but very cold. There is one gas that changes to a solid directly at -109 degrees Fahrenheit and…

HPLC Analysis of Caffeine

The main objective of this lab is to gain experience in using and reading results from the HPLC machine. 2) The first step is to inject a series of caffeine standards into the machine in order to get results/values of peak height and area. 3) The next step is to investigate the effects of a series of HPLC parameters on Retention time, peak height and peak area. 4) To use above data from peak height and area to construct two standard curves vs concentration. Introduction: Caffeine is a common organic molecule found in many beverages such as coffee, tea, and cola. It is a stimulant to the central nervous system. Which is why the majority of the population use it…

Investigating the Effect of Temperature

The permeability of membranes can be altered in several ways. From previous preliminary work I know that reagents, for example detergents and alcohol alter the arrangement of the phospholipids in the membrane allowing substances to leak out of the cell. Temperature also affects the membrane. As membranes relay on protein molecules to allow molecules to enter and leave the cell through facilitated diffusion the temperature must not exceed the approximate temperature of 50°C as at roughly this temperature proteins are denatured. This is due to an increase in kinetic energy making atoms in the protein to vibrate more; this breaks hydrogen and ionic bonds. These proteins will then not be able to function correctly within the membrane and permeability will…

Sources of air pollution

Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants in the atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories which are: Anthropogenic sources (human activity) mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel • “Stationary Sources” as smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities, municipal waste incinerators. Power plant is also used to refer to the engine in ships, aircraft and other large vehicles. Some prefer to use the term energy center because it more accurately describes what the plants do, which is the conversion of other forms of energy, like chemical energy, gravitational potential energy or heat energy into electrical energy. • “Mobile Sources” as motor…

Project Report on Effect of Impurities on the Boiling Point

Introduction Project Report Boiling Point and Freezing Point : Generally, on cooling a liquid its temperature falls gradually till it starts freezing. At this point the temperature remains constant till whole of the liquid changes into solid. “The fixed temperature at which a certain liquid freezes, is termed as its freezing point.” Freezing point of water is 00C or 273 K. In the same manner, on heating a liquid its temperature rises gradually till a stage comes when the temperature does not rise further and the liquid starts boiling. The fixed temperature at which a certain liquid boils is termed as the boiling point of liquid. The boiling point of water is 1000C or 373 K. In terms of vapour…

Applying Thermal Expansion

Complete the following problems and exercises using complete sentences and showing all work where appropriate. 1. The temperature of the Sun’s interior is about 107 degrees. Does it matter whether this is degrees Celsius or kelvins? Defend your answer. No, it DOESN’t matter whether this is in degrees Celsius or kelvins, since the DIFFERENCE between these scales is ONLY ~ 273 of either measure, and that is ABSOLUTELY NEGLIGIBLE w.r.t. the magnitude of the number 10^7. However, what is more important, perhaps, is that your value of 10^7 is itself a rather loose characterization. Modern solar evolutionary models suggest rather that the Sun’s T_c is ~ 1.5 x 10^7 (degrees Celsius or kelvins) instead of merely ~ 10^7. (Our understanding of…

Case Vignettes in Acid-Base Balance

Choose three of the four vignettes and BRIEFLY answer the questions that follow. Normal Levels of Substances in the Arterial Blood: pH 7.40 + 0.05 pCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) 40 mm Hg pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) 90 – 100 mm Hg Hemoglobin – O2 saturation 94 – 100 % [HCO3-] 24 meq / liter Vignette #1: A 14-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis has complained of an increased cough productive of green sputum over the last week. She also complained of being increasingly short of breath, and she is noticeably wheezing on physical examination. Arterial blood was drawn and sampled, revealing the following values: pH 7.30 pCO2 50 mm Hg pO2 55 mm Hg Hemoglobin – O2 saturation…

Scientific Investigation of the Peroxidase Enzyme & Temperature

Abstract:  In this lab we tested the effect temperature has on the rate of enzyme activity. The way we figured this out was by taking four different temperatures and testing the different absorbance levels they produced every 20 seconds for two minutes straight using a spectrophotometer. The important part of this experiment was the temperature the enzyme concentration was made at. What we got from the experiment was at lower temperature we got very low numbers for the absorbance, which gave us a lower rate for the enzyme reaction to complete, and visa versa for higher temperatures. From our results we saw that the higher the temperature the enzyme concentration was held at the faster the reaction was produced….

A visit to Subir Raha Oil Museum at ONGC

As a part of the curriculum of the programs offered at UPES, the students of first semester MBA Energy Trading and MBA Oil & Gas were taken to Subir Raha Oil Museum, ONGC in Dehradun. Being the students of the petroleum industry, this visit gave us a rich and holistic picture about how oil it is created in the nature, how various methods are used to detected it, the various challenges which the industry faces during its extraction and processing, how oil is refined and finally how it is effectively distributed via various means. Along with all this, the visit also gave us an in depth picture on how an oil industry functions around all these areas. We learnt about…

Underwater welding

UNDERWATER WELDING INTRODUCTION The fact that electric arc could operate was known for over a 100 years. The first ever underwater welding was carried out by British Admiralty – Dockyard for sealing leaking ship rivets below the water line. Underwater welding is an important tool for underwater fabrication works. In 1946, special waterproof electrodes were developed in Holland by ‘Van der Willingen’. In recent years the number of offshore structures including oil drilling rigs, pipelines, platforms are being installed significantly. Some of these structures will experience failures of its elements during normal usage and during unpredicted occurrences like storms, collisions. Any repair method will require the use of underwater welding. CLASSIFICATION Underwater welding can be classified as 1) Wet Welding…

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT 2013

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to give my millions of thanks to all of the staff and worker in PFCE-BJW Engineering Sdn Bhd for helping me; give me lot of knowledge and unforgettable memories during my ten weeks industrial training in PFCE-BJW Engineering Sdn Bhd. Other than that, I also want to send my appreciation to Owner / Project Manager of PFCE-BJW Engineering Sdn Bhd, Mr Roslan bin Sanip who willing to accept me as the practical student in PFCE-BJW Engineering Sdn Bhd. Besides, I would like to thank to my Supervisor / Executive, Mr Zulkifli bin Ismail for all the kindness guiding me to complete all my task assignment within this training. Meanwhile, I also would…

Fire extinguisher

The fire triangle or combustion triangle is a simple model for understanding the necessary ingredients for most fires. The triangle illustrates the three elements a fire needs to ignite: heat, fuel, and an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen). A fire naturally occurs when the elements are present and combined in the right mixture and a fire can be prevented or extinguished by removing any one of the elements in the fire triangle. For example, covering a fire with a fire blanket removes the “oxygen” part of the triangle and can extinguish a fire. To stop a combustion reaction, one of the three elements of the fire-triangle has to be removed. Without sufficient heat, a fire cannot begin, and it cannot continue….

Evaluation of a Gas Constant (Experiment 3)

Experiment 3: Evaluation of Gas Constant Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to demonstrate the ideal gas law under ordinary conditions. In this lab, the variables in the ideal gas law are known or can be found aside from the constant R. Thus, the R values can be found and relatively determine the relevancy of the ideal gas law to the lab conditions. The ideal gas law was tested using the reaction: Mg (s) + 2HCl2 (aq) H2 (g) Procedure: 1. Ribbons of magnesium (5) were cut to the approximate length of the instructor’s example and were weighed separately on scale #1. 2. HCl provided by the instructor was added to a eudiometer tube (8mL). The rest of the…

Evaluation of a Gas Constant (Experiment 3)

Experiment 3: Evaluation of Gas Constant Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to demonstrate the ideal gas law under ordinary conditions. In this lab, the variables in the ideal gas law are known or can be found aside from the constant R. Thus, the R values can be found and relatively determine the relevancy of the ideal gas law to the lab conditions. The ideal gas law was tested using the reaction: Mg (s) + 2HCl2 (aq) H2 (g) Procedure: 1. Ribbons of magnesium (5) were cut to the approximate length of the instructor’s example and were weighed separately on scale #1. 2. HCl provided by the instructor was added to a eudiometer tube (8mL). The rest of the…

Advantage of Cng over Petrol and Diesel Cars

What are the advantage of CNG over petrol and diesel engine? Answer: CNG engines create less pollution than petrol and diesel engines. As it is using compress natural gas power develops more than the others and also develops more torque in the engine. which leads to give a lower fuel consumption. | | | The Advantages of Compressed Natural Gas The Environmentally Clean Advantage | Compressed natural gas is the cleanest burning fuel operating today. This means less vehicle maintenance and longer engine life.| | CNG vehicles produce the fewest emissions of any motor fuel.| | Dedicated Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV) have little or no emissions during fueling. In gasoline vehicles, fueling emissions account for at least 50% of a…

Date and Observations

1. Write the balanced equation for the reaction conducted in this lab, including appropriate phase symbols.
Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) –> H2(g) + MgCl2(aq) 2. Determine the partial pressure of the hydrogen gas collected in the gas collection tube. 
The partial pressure of the hydrogen gas is 1.07 atm 3. Calculate the moles of hydrogen gas collected.
pv=mrt ; n= .0013mol of hydrogen gas 4. If magnesium was the limiting reactant in this lab, calculate the theoretical yield of the gaseous product. Show all steps of your calculation.
0.03184 g Mg(1mol Mg/ 24.3050 g Mg)= 0.0013mols Mg 0.0013mols Mg(1mol H2/ 1mol Mg)= .0013 1. Determine the percent yield of this reaction, showing all steps of your calculation. 2. (actual yield/ theoretical yield)x 100% (0.0013/…

Anaerobic respiration in yeast

AIM: See the effect of temperature in anaerobic respiration of yeast by counting carbon dioxide bubbles. HYPHOTESIS: Anaerobic respiration in yeast will decrease as temperature increases. VARIABLES: Independent: Temperature Dependent: Rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast Fix: Volume of sugar solution (40ml) , Concentration of sugar solution, yeast mass (2g), volume of solution of yeast & sugar all together (20ml) MATERIALS: Delivering tube 2 test tubes 2 beakers Bunsen Burner Tap Water Thermometer (±0.1°) Electronic Balance Spatula Sugar Solution Yeast Water Measuring Cylinder PROCEDURE: 1. Measure 40 ml of sugar solution with the measuring tube. Place the 40 ml on the big beaker 2. Measure 2 g of yeast using the electric balance. Place the 2 g on the beaker…