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Fungi Study Guide Essay

Q: How do fungi absorb their food? A: Through the mycelium, a thick mass of tangled hyphae that provides a large surface area for the food source to come in contact with.

Q: Are fungi photosynthetic? A: No, fungi are heterotrophic.

Q: What is a fruiting body? A: A reproductive structure growing from the mycelium in the soil beneath it. An example of a fruiting body is a mushroom.

Q: What is lichen? A: Symbiotic associations between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism. An example of lichen is shelf fungi.

Q: What is mycorrhizae? A: A mutualistic association of plant roots and fungi. An example of mycorrhizae is a Douglas Fir tree.

Q: What is yeast? A: Unicellular fungi that contain aeciospores which become active in a moist environment. An example of yeast is bread.

Q: Describe the three types of fungi reproduction. A: (See below) 1. Fragmentation of the hyphae or mycelium. (Asexual) 2. Formation of conidiospores or sporangiospores. (Asexual) 3. Formation of gametes, which fuse to produce diploid zygotes. The zygotes undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores that grow back into the fungal hyphae.

Q: List the types of specialized hyphae. A: Sporangiophores, rhizoids, and stolons.

Q: How do most fungi reproduce? What are the mating types called? A: Asexually or sexually and (-) and (+).

Q: Describe how mold appears on bread. A: Hyphae from different mating types fuse to produce gamete-forming structures known as gametangia. Haploid (N) gametes produced in the gametangia fuse with gametes of the opposite mating type to form diploid (2N) zygotes. These zygotes develop into thick-walled zygospores, which may remain dormant for months. When conditions become favorable, the zygospore germinates, then undergoes meiosis, and new haploid spores are released.

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