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Fundamentals of Biology Essay

You are beginning a journey in the world of biology. Completing this worksheet will prepare you with the background knowledge necessary for understanding this world!

What Are the Major Theories of Biology?

The major theories of biology have been tested over years and provide information helping you to understand the science of biology. For each theory, list the name of the person or persons known for scientifically testing each theory, the approximate date they experimented with the theory, and a sentence or two to describe the theory.

Bioenergetics: Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, late 18th century… helped to place the chemistry of life into the context of a larger understanding of chemistry and energetics.

Biological classification: Carolus Linneaus, late 18th century… This evolutionary approach is how we organize and classify organisms today.

Cells: Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, 17th century… the cell is the smallest Unit capable of exhibiting all of the characteristics of life.

Ecosystems: 20th century… this one has no readily identifiable person rather it was forged More slowly by a widely separated and diverse group of specialists. This concept recognizes that organisms do not exist alone, but are part of populations of similar beings, communities comprising many different living things, and environments

Evolution by natural selection: Charles Darwin, 1859…this theory has two parts: natural selections and species.

Homeostasis: Claude Bernard, mid-19th century… organisms function best when their internal conditions are maintained within rather narrow limits and that organisms tolerate widely varying external conditions by maintaining stable conditions internally—a condition known as homeostasis

Inheritance: Gregor Mendel, 20th century… Mendel proved that traits, or characteristics, of organisms pass from one generation to the next by hereditary factors which are now called genes.

What Are the Characteristics of a Living Organism

Ten characteristics distinguish an object or thing from an actual living organism. All 10 characteristics must be present simultaneously for something to be considered living. The following table lists one of the ten characteristics that make up a living organism. Fill in the remaining characteristics.


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