Freud believed that the broad spectrum of human behaviour is explained by mental processes or states which determine it. These may not be totally obvious in the conscious state of mind. Thus Freud insists on seeking an explanation of any kind of neurotic behaviour, by searching for causes in terms of mental state of the individual. He puts the implemetation of any decision to a choice that is overned by hidden mental processes, which the individual is unaware of and thus has no control over it.
An unconscious mental state is thus a reality and according to Freud, principle of causality requires that such mental states should exist, as often a conscious mind cannot perform such a neurotic or abnormal behaviour. An ‘unconscious’ mental process or event, is not an event that is not being conscious, but is actually a state that cannot be brought to the forefront of consciousness. Another aspect Crucial to the operation of the unconscious is “repression.
” people often experience thoughts and feelings that are so painful that they cannot bear them, and thus repress them from the conscious state. Such thoughts and feelings could be banished from consciousness, and are stored in the unconscious. Free association It is a form of therapy, where the doctor takes the patient to a form of dreamy state, where the unconscious is brought to the fore. Taking over from the conscious, in an effort to get to the root of the problem Personality Freud believed that personality has three structures: the id, the ego, and the superego.
The id is the Freudian structure of personality that is basically the instinct ( reservoir of psychic energy) . The id is totally unconscious; it maintains no relation to reality or practicality. The ego, the Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality. The ego is called the executive branch of personality as here the concept of reason creeps in in the aim to achieve reality. The id and the ego have no morality. They do not take into account whether something is right or wrong.
The superego is the Freudian structure of personality that is the moral branch of personality. It is this aspect of personality that is responsible for the thought of right or wrong. This is actually nothing but out conscience, which prevents us from doing something wrong, as per our social and educatonal status. five psychosexual stages The oral stage lasts from birth to about 18 months. The focus of pleasure here is the mouth. The infant likes to put everything in the mouth to satisfy itself. Sucking and biting are favorite activities.
The anal stage lasts from about 18 months to three or four years old. The focus of pleasure is the anus. The grasping of things are the feature here. Holding it in and letting it go are greatly enjoyed. The phallic stage lasts from three or four to five, six, or seven years old. The focus of pleasure is the genitalia. Masturbation is common. Even though the gratification is focused on the genitals, this is not in the form of adult sexuality, since the children are yet physically immature. However, stimulation of genitals is welcomed as pleasurable.
Children become increasingly aware of their body and are curious about the body of other children, The latent stage lasts from five, six, or seven to puberty, that is, somewhere around 12 years old. During this stage, Freud believed that the sexual impulse was suppressed in the service of learning The genital stage begins at puberty, and represents the resurgence of the sex drive in adolescence, and the more specific focusing of pleasure in sexual intercourse it is the time when the individual tries to come in terms with unresolved residues of the early childhood.