The relationship between Frequency and phase- shift in Butterworth filters

The phase characteristic of Butterworth filters varies with the particular frequency in the passband and also with the ratio of cut-off frequency to sampling frequency. The cut off frequency occurs at the point where the phase shift is half its maximum value. The frequency of the Butterworth filters is often flat (they have no ripples). Therefore the Butterworth has a linear phase characteristic. The function of their magnitude has monotonic changes contrary to other filters which have non-monotonic ripples (Daryanani, 1976). The Butterworth filters have rolls off slowly and thus a particular specification of stopband needs higher order to be implemented. This is because the gain is high at higher frequency and lower at low frequency. Similarly the group delay…

Measuring the Speed of Sound (Moving Tube)

1.Set Up the Experiment: Place the open ended tube into the water, and verify that it can produce a resonance tube length within the limits set by your instructor. Confirm that you can hear the sound produced by the constant frequency source. If using a tuning fork, place it as shown in the picture, with the tuning for directly over the tube but not so close that it can vibrate and damage the tube. If using a different sound source, adapt your instructions below to your situation. 2.Find the Resonance Condition: Starting with a very short air tube length, strike the tuning fork, place it near the tube, and increase the air column listening for a length that has a…

Graphing a Wave

Name: A vibration is a wiggle in time; a wave is a wiggle in space and time. In this exercise, you will explore that connection by transferring the motion of the second hand of a clock (a vibration, even if a slow one), to a wave. Print out the image of a clock and open the spreadsheet called Grapher. You will find both of them in the same item where you found these instructions. Use a metric ruler to measure the displacement of the tip of the second hand every five seconds. Thatâ€™s the distance above or below the center line that connects the 3 and the 9. Count the number as positive if the tip is above the line…