The miscellaneous condition of psychology is a scientific investigation of humankind mind, body, and behavior. Psychology includes different departments of psychology to apprehend and supervise observations on the mental technique of a person mind and behavior. Psychology is regularly used to establish the secrecy of the human behavior. Observation was the way to study a person mind to become aware of the mental conscious and unconscious states. As time went by psychology was established, alone with some major schools of thoughts.
The paper below will discuss the six major schools of thought in psychology, examine the foundation of psychology, and examine their major underlying assumptions, behaviorism, psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, humanistic, and cognitive. In addition, it will show how the primary biological foundations of psychology are linked to behavior such as, brain, central nervous system, peripheral nervous System, and genetics/evolution. Behavioral Theory
Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a learning theory established on the notion that behaviors are gathered by conditioning. Conditioning develops from influenced of the environment. Operant and classical are the two major types of conditioning. A natural stimulus is paired with a response, when a procedure known as classical conditioning is the procedure used in behavioral training. When someone receives rewards and punishments for behavior that is what we call Operant conditioning. Behaviorists speculate that a person acknowledgement to environmental stimuli shapes a person behavior. Behaviorism made psychology more scientific by concentrating totally on observable behavior. This school of thought suggests that observable only behaviors should be studied.
Structuralism and Functionalism|
A German scientist, Wilhelm Wundt decided to take a structuralist approach to psychology after he founded his laboratory in Leipzig. An American, William James took the functionalist approach in his lab at Harvard. They both decided that since psychology was not being approached as a discipline of human behavior, they both decided to take their knowledge of the principles of scientific research and apply their study to human behavior. Psychology’s foundation as a science needs to be thoroughly understood, so let us take a look at both men’s foundation as scientists. Wundt’s approach to the structuralist approach sought to identify the building blocks, or the structure, of psychological experience, in the same way other sciences had been broken down in this way before.
Physics had its fundamental laws, just as chemistry had its periodic table of elements, and Wundt wanted to do the same for psychology, which would establish a series of fundamental relations or structures that could be used to explain all behavior.However, William James, over at Harvard, working on his functionalist approach, did not agree with Wundt’s scientific approach of structuralism. James thought that Wundt’s mental processes were to complex.
Psychologists believe the method of measuring would always change what was always trying to be measured. Influenced by Darwin’s theory of natural selection, James preferred instead to question why we behave the way we do. James wanted to understand the functions of behavior in our lives; in terms of either how it helped us or hurt us and why certain behaviors were more common than others, such as why do humans feel jealousy. | |
Various kinds of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapies have been established. In the twentieth century, Freud was an important scientific thinker and his theories have influenced cultures and counseling and psychotherapy practices. Freud believed that personality is shaped by biological drives expressed early in life through preoccupation with specific parts of the body, and that each stage involves gratification associated with the function of that part of the body and the child’s developmental stage. The psychodynamic theory consists of rests on three elements.
First, a person feelings and thoughts is part of his or her minds. Second, the awareness of the conscious has various mental issues that happen outside. Third, these mental issues may interfere with each other, causing jeopardize motives. Psychoanalysis and other analytic approaches have been criticized on several fronts related to multicultural issues length and lack of affordability, and overemphasis on individual dynamics versus social issues and influences.
Cognitive theories focused on the way a person is motivated, solve problems, make decision, and thinking. Cognitive psychology studies mental understandings that consist of how people think, comprehend, and learn. The focus is how people collect, understand, and accumulate information. There are many administrations for cognitive research, such as, improving a person memory, building making decision correctly, and building educational to increase learning. Starting in the late 70s behaviorism was the main controller in the school of thought in psychology, but the focus to move away from behavioral psychology to subjects such as attention, memory and problem-solving.
The brain is a sophisticated, functional, and manageable structure that controls a person behaviors and mental performances. Psychologists study the brain many ways. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors are tested by neuropsychologist to measure the affected by brain damage. The activity of the brain is studied using an electroencephalogram (EEG), (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The brain consists of three parts: the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain.
The hindbrain consists of the brain stem and the cerebellum that controls a person, movement, posture, and balance. The midbrain is located in the middle of the brain that helps control vision, sleep, and sound. The forebrain’s holds the thalamus and hypothalamus sensors that control a person motivation and emotion behavior. The motivation urges a person have come from the limbic system that also synchronizes memory and emotion. The brain has a right and a left side known as hemispheres. The two hemispheres correspond and work together with the aid of the corpus callosum. When one hemisphere does a main job, this is known as lateralization.
Evolutionary psychology central point is biologically functions established as solutions to same kind of difficulties of adjustments. Evolution means a change over time which the rhythm with certain genes happens within a crossbreeding society. Darwin’s theory foundation of evolution is the fundamental of uncontrolled collection, which shows that biologically based features that reinforce the survival and reproductive in the population because people who lack the features are less likely to pass on their genes. Many features are impelling by the cooperation of many genes. Behavior geneticists investigate the addition of genetic and environmental ingredients psychological characteristics and behaviors. These investigations suggest that psychological characteristics have genetic contributions. Genetic structure allows researchers to copy and transform genetic.
Central Nervous System
The central nervous system transports signals back and forth within the brain, the spinal cord, and glands and muscles. Nerve endings sends signal to the brain, which causes neurons within the brain to be used. This signal may cause a muscle to contract or relax. The nervous system consists of connected nerve chambers that send instruction throughout the body. There are four distinguish features of the nervous system. The intelligence of the brain to adjust is termed plasticity. Cells that transport information to the brain is called afferent neurons and those that transport information out of the brain are called efferent neurons. The communication of the nervous system consist of networking, which the cells combine sensory input and motor output. Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system joins the brain and spinal cord and connects to other body parts. The peripheral nervous system is split into the somatic nervous system, which includes sensory, motor nerves, and the autonomic nervous system, which monitors the bodily organs located inside the body. Peripheral nervous system can be damage easily and exposed to toxins and injuries because it is not protected by the bone of spine, skull, or by the blood–brain restriction. Conclusion
The miscellaneous condition of psychology is a scientific investigation of humankind mind, body, and behavior. Psychology includes different departments of psychology to apprehend and supervise observations on the mental technique of a person mind and behavior. Behaviorism made psychology more scientific by concentrating totally on observable behavior. Humanist thinkers believe that both psychoanalysis and behaviorism were too depressing focusing on the tragic of emotions.
Cognitive psychology studies mental understandings that consist of how people think, comprehend, and learn. Foundations of biopsychology are the foundation that every thought, emotion, and behavior that a person has starts in the brain. In the past, foundations of biopsychology were thought of as physiological psychology or behavioral neuroscience. Evolutionary psychology central point is biologically functions established as solutions to same kind of difficulties of adjustments.
Wickens, A. (2005). Foundations of Biopsychology Harlow, England: Prentice Hall. Retrieved electronically November 26, 2007 from:
http://www.psypress.com/common/supplementary/184169360X/part1.pdf James, W. (1904) The Chicago school. Psychological Bulletin. 1, 1-5. Retrieved electronically February 6, 2013 from:
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