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Foundations of psychology Essay

(a) Conceptually, reasoning is characterized by various attitudes, emotions, feelings or even assumptions. These are the psychological factors that occur psychologically as parameters that help to develop a logical conclusion in ones reasoning. Rationality in reasoning is what yields a final resolution. However, such reasoning is brought to a state of imbalance in which the different assumptions, feelings and attitudes tend to shape the outcome responses. Perhaps however, each of the attributes could be controlled by aspects of various stimuli that respond to the three stage of classical conditioning.

Initially, an aspect of anxiety of wanting to create some reflective thinking occurs. This is because of the desire to come to a logical conclusion of the problem held in the reasoning. The unconditioned stimulus before the reasoning was to arrive at a phenomenon based on the results of the reasoning. The driving force then throws an imbalance in the cognitive state of the brain senses with a basic aim of arriving towards an imperative solution based on the foundations of the question in the reasoning.

A state of confusion occurs basically due to inability of making the correct choice of solutions. The solution should be independent of the external environment. Additionally, the choices to the solution also consider that reasoning may have various solutions. However, a conflict exists between the set of decisions alternatives due to the inability of making the most rational decision instantly. However, the principles of classical conditioning help to develop various stimuli corresponding to the various decision alternatives.

Each stimulus (like a defensive censor) evokes one another to finally reach at an equilibrium consensus which the cognitive personality chooses as the best decision variable (Anne, 1999) A state of ambivalence follows the above stage of confusion. Ambivalence develops from the emotional perceptions and seeks to give a feeling of no specific inclination in any of the decision alternatives persuaded in the reasoning process. This is however a defense mechanism since it denies the strong efforts of strong feelings in the decision alternatives thus lessening the probable pain which one would have encountered in decision making (Michael, 1977)

(b) Role of memory in reasoning The human memory is an important element in cognitive reasoning. Memory is what aligns the different aspects involved in reasoning to yield a correspondence between one another. The attitudes, feelings and assumptions ought to be construed in a dimension that brings reflective ties to one another. Memory can be said as the pivot entry between the functional relationships in all elements that define reasoning. The fundamental scope of reasoning is comprised of various complimentary processes that depend on one another.

The philosophical and psychological standpoints have pinpointed on memory and reasoning as working in an integrated system and none can replace one another. Memory acts as an object that brings a tie and conjoins the various independent processes that are involved in the process of reasoning. It is also the object that provides subjective interactions and explorations among the wide scope of the cognitive processes to arrive at a balance of interest which is the defining choice/decision variable of the reasoning process (Thomson, 2001)

Conceptually, the association that exists in human reasoning is brought about by the organization and content interaction of the human memory. It helps to bring about a scope of interpretation about the various processes that are involved in the human cognition. Consequently, memory is influential as a trajectory object for the integration of the various processes in the reasoning processes that finally strikes a balance in the choice of decision to follow. (c) Obstacles in reasoning There are various obstacles that could hinder the process of effective reasoning.

These include; Mental entrenchment: This is a situation that occurs when the mind is framed in models that represent various problems, problem contexts or perhaps the possible procedures for use in solving a particular problem. When a person involved in reasoning has entrenched mind sets, they may develop methods that creates a solution to the problem in question but which does not provide the most optimal and effective solutions to such problems (Mark, 2007) Either, functional fixedness is an obstacle in effective thinking/reasoning.

This case arises when an individual who has an ability of doing specific things extends such methods in creating the decisions in reasoning. He is unable to develop methodologies that addresses a certain problem in question but rather has to refer to what models his/her mind (Mark, 2007) Stereotypes: Stereotypes are those fundamental generalizations that are unsupported by rationality held by the members within a certain setting or the contemporary society. Stereotypes could be learned during childhood. Individuals accustomed to various senses of stereotypical thinking always make generalized choice and decisions in their reasoning process.

Negative transfers: This is the condition when the procedures that are to be used in solving a current problem occurs in the future as harder problems that are perhaps unsolvable. This is a contrast of positive transfer that implies the former process for solving gone problems make the current problem easy to solve. These obstacles are highly involved in obstructing the critique of critical and effective thinking by bringing the wrong illusions and impressions in the reasoning process. (d) Types of reasoning involved in the experience Generally, there are various reasoning involved in an experience.

Each differs in terms of flow of precepts and hypothetical developments. The process of reasoning within the given set of experience is important in giving the rationality behind the choice of one decision at the expense of the others. However, various types of reasoning are used in the reasoning process. These include; Abduction: This is the process through which a hypothesis statement about an experience is made. It seeks to formulate the fundamental scope of levels with which such a problem/experience occurs and the possible influential factors behind it.

The cause and the effect reasoning: This is the mode of reasoning which seeks to relate the starting point of an experience or a problem of interest. It involves establishing the causes and effects and then trying to relate how each affects one another or how each is related to the other. (Manktelow, 1999) Comparative reasoning: This is the reasoning precept that seeks to draw a comparative analogy by comparing and relating one thing with the corresponding alternative. It then seeks to strike a balance of stability between such relationships.

Deductive reasoning: It is the reasoning that involves establishing the generalized parameters and then moving towards a drive in the specific rules. Inductive reasoning: This is that which involves establishing the specific parameters and then driving towards the generalized rules. (e) Methods of enhancing effective reasoning in this experience. Critical thinking is that which goes beyond logical reasoning. It is that which works towards scrutinizing arguments by support of empirical evidence. Enhancing reasoning is a combination of various tools that promote the cognitive precepts of the human brain.

These include; Physical exercise: Physical exercise is highly supportive in the functionality of the brain. A functional brain is a brain that has the cognitive power of critical and effective reasoning. Taking physical exercise helps to refresh the nervous system whose central context is the brain faculty (Robert, 1991) Taking adequate sleep: It is of necessity that a person takes enough sleep that brings relaxation to the reasoning and thinking autonomies. The mind set that could be infiltrated by sleep and stress is prone to inadequate reasoning.

Various decisions by the human reasoning can only be ploughed in by a sober and a relaxed cognitive personality. Neurofeedback process: This is the process through which the precepts of human reasoning are controlled by reflecting back to what presumes a certain reasoning obligation. It is the sensational process of developing a raw feedback to the mind that causes fatal relaxation before engaging into fresh models of reasoning (Anne, 1999) Avoiding reasoning distracters: This is achieved through adequate payment of attention.

Though a complex pattern involved in the brain function, it can be ensured by the proper payment of attention to the reasoning process that would then help to withdraw all possible abstractions and therefore driving towards concrete decisions.

Reference Anne, T (1999) Critical Reasoning in Ethics. London, Routledge Manktelow, K (1999) Reasoning and Thinking. London. Psychology Press Mark, R (2007) The Psychology of Reasoning, London, Routeldge. Michael, S (1977) Reasoning. New York, McGraw Hill Robert, A (1991) Practical Reasoning. London, Routledge Thomson, A (2001) Critical Reasoning: A Practical Introduction. London, Routlege


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