Write the key features, listed below, into the correct life stage of development and most significantly affected age range. In your own words, provide an explanation of the term and how it affects the developmental stage. An example is provided for reference. For the purposes of this assignment, field marked N/A do not need to be completed. Teratogens Attachment ADHD Temperament Preoperational Thought PeriodIn-Vitro Fertilization ConservationSelf-Concept Refined motor skillsZygote Positive Reinforcement Sensorimotor Period Mobility Biological DevelopmentPsychological or Cognitive DevelopmentSocial DevelopmentConception and Pre-birthExample Teratogens are substances, including drugs, that cause malformations in the fetus (Zastrow Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.54). For example, the text states that teratogens are Certain drugs affect biological development by causing malformations of body parts and organs. Newborn children of drug addicts, for example, experience a number of potential developmental problems such as low birth weight, muscle tremors, and physical birth defects (Zastrow Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.54).
A zygote is a single cell formed by the combination of the genetic material in a womans egg and sperm. In-Vitro Fertilization is a process in which eggs are removed from a womans body, fertilized with sperm in a laboratory dish, and then implanted in the womans uterus (Zastrow Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.90). N/A N/AInfancy The central theme of attachment theory is that primary caregivers who are available and responsive to an infants needs allow the child to develop a sense of security. Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. He suggested attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the childs chances of survival.Temperament is each individuals distinguishing mental and emotional nature that results in a characteristic pattern of responses to people and situations (Zastrow Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.125).
There are three broad categories of infant temperament that are often used as guidelines for determining normal infant behavior. The three categories of infant temperament are easy, slow-to-warm-up, and difficult. N/AChildhood ADHD, a psychiatric diagnosis, is a syndrome of learning and behavioral problems beginning in childhood (Zastrow Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.146). Children often fail to give close attention to details and make careless mistakes in their schoolwork or in other activities. Also, they have difficulties organizing their tasks and activities. They are easily distracted by extraneous stimuli and they tend to be forgetful in their daily activities Piagets second stage of cognitive development, the preoperational thought period, extends from approximately ages 2 to 7 (Zastrow Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.116). Increased use of verbal representation but speech is egocentric. The beginnings of symbolic rather than simple motor play. Can think about something without the object being present by use of language. Conservation is the idea that a substance can be changed in one way while remaining the same in another (Zastrow Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.115).
This means that the child understands that although the appearance of something changes, the thing itself does not. Fine motor skills are necessary to engage in smaller, more precise movements, normally using the hands and fingers. Fine motor skills are different than gross motor skills, which require less precision to perform. The sensorimotor period identifies a child as they progress from simple thoughtless reflex reactions to a basic understanding of the environment (Zastrow Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.116). Behaviors are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli. Children utilize skills and abilities they were born with (such as looking, sucking, grasping, and listening) to learn more about the environment. Baumeister provides the following self-concept definition the individuals belief about himself or herself, including the persons attributes and who and what the self is (Baumeister, 1999). The self-concept is how we think about and evaluate ourselves. To be aware of oneself is to have a concept of oneself.Positive reinforcement refers to positive events or consequences that follow a behavior and strengthen it (Zastrow Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.169).
Successful positive reinforcement results in a behavior occurring more frequently in the future. It can make learning fun, increase participation and cooperation, and help children learn valuable skills. Because of their mobility, children need constant supervision. Their interest in exploration, falling down, and getting into dangerous situations are all constant possibilities (Zastrow Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.67). Baumeister provides the following self-concept definition the individuals belief about himself or herself, including the persons attributes and who and what the self is (Baumeister, 1999). Its psychological development due to self-evaluation, but its also social development due to the benchmark we judge others by.
Baumeister, R. F. (Ed.) (1999). The Self in Social Psychology. Philadelphia, PA Psychology Press (Taylor Francis). Zastrow, C. H., Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2010). Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment (8th ed.). Mason, OH Cengage Learning Foundations of Human Development Worksheet