For example, the text states that teratogens are Certain drugs affect biological development by causing malformations of body parts and organs. Newborn children of drug addicts, for example, experience a number of potential developmental problems such as low birth weight, muscle tremors, and physical birth defects (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010, p.54)..
In-Vitro Fertilization is a process in which eggs are removed from a woman’s body, fertilized with a sperm in a laboratory dish, and then implanted in the woman’s uterus (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010). For example, a husband and wife who cannot get pregnant on their own, can try in-vitro fertilization so that the wife or a surrogate mother can carry their child to term. This process is not always 100%, can require more than one embryo being placed, in hopes of one of them taking.
Zygote is the process when the genetic material in the egg and the sperm combine to form a single cell (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010). For example, our text states the eggs are not fertilized by sperm simply disintegrating. The moment the two combine is when fertilization occurs (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010).
Attachment is a strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion” (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010). For example, a mother and her child share a strong attachment. This bond will build as the child grows, and become stronger over time.
Mobility is the child’s ability to move or moved easily.
For example according to out reading around 6 to 9 months infants will start to search out their caregivers in order to stay closer to them. This means they will start to crawl and their mobility will increase (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010).
Refine Motor Skills are achieved when children learn to use their smaller muscles, like muscles in the hands, fingers, and wrists. For example, children use their fine motor skills when writing, holding small items, buttoning clothing, turning pages, eating, cutting with scissors, and using computer keyboards. Mastery of fine motor skills requires precision and coordination. Motor skills are achieved from birth and i
Temperament is each individual’s distinguishing mental and emotional nature that results in a characteristic pattern of responses to people and situations. For example, according to our text “some babies are more emotionally reactive, or easily and intensely irritated by events, than others are. Some are highly active; others are relatively sluggish. Some are very sociable or interested in and responsive to people; others are more standoffish” (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010).
Sensorimotor Period is the first stage of cognitive development which extends from birth to 2 years of age. During this period, a child progresses from simple thoughtless reflex reactions to a basic understanding of the environment. For example, if a child is attached to a particular item, they will immediately realize it is missing if someone comes and takes it and search for it in order to find it (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010).
ADHA or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis, is a syndrome of learning and behavioral problems beginning in childhood that is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention, excessive physical movement, and impulsivity that appears in at least two settings (including home, school, work, or social contexts) (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010). For example, a child with ADHA may find it hard to sit still or pay attention in school. This can make the school work hard for the child, because they will have a harder time staying on task and they can fall behind.
Conservation is a child’s ability to grasp the idea that while ones aspect of substance (e.g., quantity or weight) remains the same, another aspect of that same substance (e.g., shape or position) can be changed (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010). For example, if you were to give a child 2 square block of a different color and size they would still be able to tell that both blocks are both the same shape.
Positive Reinforcement occurs when a reward is given in order to gain a desired behavior. For example, if you see your child doing something as simple as picking up their toys without you asking them to telling them thank you is a verbal affirmation that they are doing good and should do this again.
Preoperational Thought Period is the second stage of cognitive development between the ages of 2 and 7 years of age. Some overlap from one stage to another should be expected. A child’s thinking continues to progress to a more abstract, logical level. Although children are still tied to their physical and perceptual experiences, their ability to remember things and to solve problems continues to grow (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010).
Self-concept is a person’s perception of and feelings about him- or herself, including his or her personality, strengths, weaknesses, and relationships with others (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010). For example, according to our text a person may deny that experiences are in conflict with his or her self-concept. Or the person may distort or rationalize the experiences so that they are perceived as being consistent with his or her self-concept (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2010).
Zastrow, C. H., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2010). Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment, Eighth Edition. Copyright © Cengage Learning.