The processes of evaluation depend mainly on the purpose of the evaluation and the object to be evaluated. There are many processes of evaluation, but the most important basic distinction in these processes is between formative and summative. Formative Evaluation In this process, the evaluation is done on the strengths, weaknesses and even on how to improve the object. It is usually done by examining the delivery of the service or the technology, implementation of the quality, and the assessment of the organizational personnel, procedures, and context among others.
The formative evaluation can be subdivided into the following types of evaluation which are very essential: assessment evaluation, which is used in order to determine the feasibility of the evaluation and how the administrators, sponsors, donors among others can help to improve its usefulness; process evaluation, this mainly involves investigation of the process of service or technology delivery and other alternative delivery processes; needs assessment, this is used to determine who needs the program, the greatness of the need, and even how to meet the need; and lastly, implementation evaluation, which involves the monitoring of the fidelity of service or technology deliverance ( Trochim, 2006). Summative evaluation This process of evaluation examines the outcomes of the effects of some object on the service or technological deliverance. It usually describes what happens subsequent to technology or service delivery, assess whether the object caused the observed outcome, and even estimate the cost associated with the object.
The summative evaluation consists of several types and these include: impact evaluation, this usually involves the assessment of the overall effects of the service or the technology; outcome evaluation, this deals with investigating whether the service or the technology caused the effects on that specific target outcome; cost effectiveness and benefit analysis, which deals with questions of efficiency and effectiveness by standardizing the outcomes in terms of values and cost; meta-analysis, which involves the integration of the outcome estimates from the all the studies done to come to an overall judgement about the question(s) being evaluated; and lastly, secondary analysis, which involves reexamination of the existing data so that new questions can be addressed or new methods can used (Trochim, 2006).
The most important objectives of evaluation is to provide a useful feedback to various audiences, who may include administrators, sponsors, staff and even donors among others. It is often done to gauge success in attaining organization goals. In most cases, the feedback from evaluation is perceived as useful since it helps in decision-making and policy formulation. However, in very rare cases the evaluation feedback can fail to influence the making of short-term decisions. The evaluation tool is mainly used in a workplace by the employers to review employee performance and is usually done by the supervisors or senior managers.
In such a case, it may involve assessing how the employee is doing using performance scale rating which show the strengths and weaknesses in important areas which may include promptness and following given instructions among others. The employees are also given the chance to share their suggestions and concerns about the workplace experiences and details such as pay raise, promotions and many others. Furthermore, the significant progress made in achieving the employee goals in a set time period is also evaluated. These employee goals can be set by the organization or can be set voluntary. Word Count: 560 Reference List Trochim W. T. (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved on May 2, 2009 from http://www. socialresearchmethods. net/kb/index. php