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Paying Attention to Foreign Affairs: How Public Opinion Affects Presidential Decision Making Essay

         The foreign policy of United States has been altered since the era of George Washington. Even though Americans pay consideration to counsel of their respected founder, this is not enough because the world is different. Many people who have shaped the American foreign policy currently, admit the fact that membership to the world community makes United States not to ignore the significance of getting along. One of way in which public influence has or can influence foreign policy is through political leadership, this means that those politicians lead the American public to embrace certain issues. Research have shown that most Americans are ill formed and uncertain on foreign affairs because it is thought that leaders generally disregarded mass inclinations when making their foreign policy choices. Another way is through political responsiveness whereby normal politicians set aside their own principles and obediently follows the public opinion (Knecht and Thomas, 2010). Recent research shown that American public both holds foreign policy opinions and cares about foreign affairs that are normal and constant.

          For any society that decides to terminate the period of discrimination, it must face the alike ethical dilemma. For instance, if everybody is given the right not to be discriminated against race, there is high probability of helping those victims who undergone past discrimination and the racial inclination is lost. Moreover if those members of the earlier omitted groups are preferred on basis of race then there is denial of right to prevent racial discrimination among other people. In my opinion generating a program is the best idea since it will assist much those victims who had suffered such unethical treatment of racial discrimination in past instead of applying racial preference. This program will fulfil the racial non-discrimination rule because the basis for help would be individual hurt and not racial identity. However, it will only assist a portion of those who are now benefiting from race-based confirmatory act (Higginbotham, 2013).

         Due to frequent exhibitions of racial discrimination, it is evident that in some areas of the world and by governmental strategies centered on hatred or racial superiority, for example the apartheid, racial segregation is an ideal issue in any human society. However, the issue of affirmative action was suggested during reconstruction period which led to U.S civil war. When the battle ended, those groups of people who were in the southern region owned nothing and had inadequate skills which could help them to earn a living. The groups appealed for equal rights and wanted opportunity in the public grounds of employment and education to be equal. In various ways, they succeeded and as affirmative action developed, however, it portrayed rise of criticism from whites and men who viewed it as an “opposite segregation”. The debate over affirmative action has rotated around a collection of highly charged words, which sometimes complicates, instead of enlightening the discussion. Therefore it is significant to note that affirmative action play as a control where discrimination has been found to exist or approved. Goals serve as one measure of non-discrimination and of the efficiency of affirmation achievement efforts, not as a directive for female employment or minority (Raza et. Al, 1999).

         The implications of international economic policy on foreign policymaking has become more difficult in the period of globalization since the number of players that require to be engaged along has increased. Referring from the traditional foreign policy, only few number of governments could deal with each other on moderately number of issues in accordance to the established terms and conditions. Currently, however, that cannot apply for national interests to be considered. There is now, in accumulation to rising number of countries, an innumerable of fresh players which want to be considered as awn domestic addressees as well as the domestic addressees of the countries wants powerful economic units (Burns, 2010).


Burns, R N, Jonathon Price, Jr J. S. Nye, and Brent Scowcroft. The Global Economic Crisis: And Potential Implications for Foreign Policy and National Security. Aspen Institute, The, 2010. Print.

Higginbotham, F M. Ghosts of Jim Crow: Ending Racism in Post-Racial America. , 2013. Print.

Raza, M A, A J. Anderson, and Harry G. Custred. The Ups and Downs of Affirmative Action Preferences. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1999. Print.

Knecht, Thomas. Paying Attention to Foreign Affairs: How Public Opinion Affects Presidential Decision Making. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010. Print.

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