Investigations in any area spring from previous knowledge. No matter how minimal or extensive they are, they serve in part as baseline data. This Chapter presents the literature/references gathered by the researcher. These studies included foreign and local studies/literature having direct or indirect bearing on the present study. Frank Pogue (2000) did a research project to determine why students fail. What he founds to be true in that study habits survey was that more than 30 years ago still rings true today-students fail because they do not know how to study. The best advice he can give is to develop sound study skills. He said that a student should make sure that he/she has a good study environment, a good desk, a sturdy chair, good light, comfortable room temperature and a quiet atmosphere.
That means he/she should eliminate all external and internal distractions. Second, get a good overview of the assignment before starting the work. Know what skills, facts and ideas that are expected to master and the ground that are expected to cover. Start with most difficult subjects first, while the mind is freshest and most receptive. In his experimental study on the effect of learning, Winter stated that the first and probably the most important thing needed was to acquire the habits of studying effectively. Effective methods of study consisted basically of those fundamental principles which underlaid efficiency.
Doing one’s work regularly, staying at it until it was done and not getting behind in it should be the general guides for successful study as well as in any field of endeavor. It was assumed that the pupils had ability enough to cope successfully with the academic tasks. The success of the responses to the task depended in great measure to their efforts. Reading is an attempt to absorb the thought of the author and know what the author is conveying (Leedy 1956).
Study habits have been defined as the attitude of one person towards their academic year in life. It has been also studied by many researchers. In fact, according to psychologist John M. Grohol, the study habit of students is affected by its environment. Due to that, he suggests that student should study in smarter way. And so he gives ten effective study habits to assist the students with their schoolwork. These ten effective study habits are the following:
1. Improve your study mindset by thinking positively towards study, avoiding catastrophic and absolute thinking such as self-pitying, and lastly, avoid comparing yourself with others.
2. Environment matters in studying so it would be better if you find your ideal place that suits your studying approach.
3. Bring everything you need, nothing you don’t. Through this study habit, you will be able to focus more on your schoolwork and you will avoid such destruction.
4. Outline and review your notes.
5. Use memory games or mnemonic devices in memorizing pieces of information regarding your studies.
6. Practice by on your own or with friends since practice makes perfect. It can also assist you to remember your lesson easily.
7. Make a schedule you can stick to and being committed to it hinder you from cramming.
8. Take breaks and rewards. These breaks will facilitate you to do your schoolwork more efficiently and effectively. Meanwhile, the rewards could be use as your motivation in studying.
9. Keep healthy and balance. Though it is difficult to live a balanced life while in school, you must consider that the more balanced you seek out in your life, the easier for you to overcome every components in your life. Being healthy also, gives you more energy to do your tasks.
10. Know what are the expectations are for the class to abet you understand the course requirements and the professor’s expectations.