The foodservice industry is complex, fast growing, and ever changing. Many factors affects its growth and status, including socioeconomic conditions, demograpic shits, and the changing food habits and desire of the America people. Being alert to these changes will help foodservice managers adapt their operations to meet the demands of the times.
Foodservices with similar characteristics are grouped as prticular types of production are grouped as particular types of production or operating system. Each of the four types of foodservice operating systems found united states today is described with its identifying features, advantages and disadvantages. The typical foodservic organizations that use each types are also identified. This description should provide a basis for managers to decide on the type of operation suitable for a particular situation.
The system differ in where the food is preparedin relation to where it is served, the time span between preoparation and service, the forms of foods purchased, methods of holding prepared foods and the amount and kind of labor and equipment required. The types of foodservice system is conventional, ready- prepared, commisary and assembly system.
Introduction of Conventional system As the name implies, the conventional system has been used traditionally throughout the years. Menu items are prepared in a kitchen in the same facility where the meals are served and held a short time, either hot and cold, until serving time. In earlier years all preparation, as well as cooking, took place on the premise, and foods were prepared from basic ingredients. Kitchen included a butcher shop, bakery,and vegetable preparation units. Over the year a modified conventional system has evolved because of labor shortages, high-labor costs, and the avaibility of new form of food.
To reduce time and labor costs, foodservice managers began to purchase some foods with ‘’built-in’’ labor. Butcher shops, in which meats were cut from prime cuts, and bake shops are gone from the most ‘’conventional’’ kitchen today. Meats are now purchased ready to cook or portion controlled: bread and many bakery items are purchased from a commercial bakery or prepared fro mixes: and produceis available in prepeeled, cut, frozen, or canned forms, all of which reduce the amount of production and labor required on the premises. Foods with varving degreesof processing are now used in conventional foodservice systems.
This system is most effective in situations and locales where the labor supply is adequate and of relatively low cost :where sources of the food supplies, especially raw foods, are readily available: and when adequate space is allocated for foodservice equipment and activities. Typical users of the conventional system are smaller foodservice operations such as independent restaurants, schools, colleges, hospital and health care facilities, homes for specialized groups, and in-plant eployee feeding.
Advantages and disadvantages of conventional system The conventional system has many advantages. Quality control is considered of primary improtance. Through the menu, recepis, and quality of ingredients selected by the manager, the foodservice achives its individuality and standard of quality desired. It is not dependent on the availability and variety of frozen entrees and other menu items commercially prepared.
This system is more adaptable to the regional, ethnic, nd individual preferences of its customers than is possible with other systems. From an economic standpoint, greater flexibility is possible in making menu changes to take advantages of good market buys and seasonal fluctuations. Also, less freezer storage space is required than with the other systems, and distribution costs are minimal, both of which save on energy use the costs.
Disadvantages The conventional system produces an uneven, somewhat stressful workday caused by meal period demands. Because the menu differs each day, the workloads vary, making it difficult for workers to achieve high productivity. Skilled workers may be assigned tasks that could be completed by nonskilled employees just to feel their time between meals periods. When three meals a dayare served, two shifts of employees are required to cover the 12 to 15 hours or longer workday. Schedulling workers may be difficult with overlapping shifts.