1. List three factors largely responsible for the significant increase in North American food production since the end of World War II.
a. Population Growth
b. Rising personal income
2. Describe the trends in world food production vis-a-vis population growth from 1950 to the present. There is more people to supply food than before.
3. To what extent does expanding the amount of land under cultivation offer hope for significantly increasing world food supply? Why? To permit unproductive lands to be farmed, making it possible to raise two to three crops a year on the same land.
4. List four reasons for the loss of currently productive agricultural land.
5. What factors make it unlikely that ocean fish harvests can be increased substantially above present levels? Large predator fish, overexploitation by industrial fishing fleets has reduced stocks of some species.
6. List several changes in food-handling practices that poor countries could implement to prevent loss of harvested crops. Store grains in bins that may not be easily penetrated, have good refrigeration and have reliable transport for the food.
7. To what extent can “eating lower on the food chain” help to solve problems of world hunger? It will help until the population grows more and going vegetarian would not be possible.
8. Why are a number of relatively affluent countries purchasing farmland in other nations? What are the advantages and disadvantages of such purchases for the host country?
Because of the productive soil their food will grow much better in each different region. Some advantages might be that they will have that food available for the consumers and some disadvantages might be that there is a climate change and loose the crop.
B. Match the following deficiency diseases with the nutritional factor (shown below the table) whose absence provoked these conditions (you can use the factor or corresponding letter (a, b, ….):
1. childhood blindness
5. mental retardation
c. vitamin A
d. vitamin Bl (thiamine)
e. vitamin C
f. vitamin D
g. vitamin E
k. overall calorie/protein shortage
C. True/False. Indicate T or F in the space before each numbered question. If the statement is false, revise it below in the box provided to make a correct statement; focus your response on the words in bold.
1. As incomes rise, food demand increases because more affluent people eat larger quantities of food.
2. It is estimated that approximately a billion people in the world today are undernourished.
3.Within families in poor societies, adolescent boys are the most likely to suffer from malnutrition.
4. Overpopulation is the major cause of chronic hunger problems in the developing world.
5. In societies where hunger is widespread, the rate of malnutrition among children and women is much higher than it is among men.
6. Malnutrition is most harmful when it occurs among children under 5.
7. The damaging effects of childhood malnutrition are reversible if the child receives an adequate diet when he/she becomes older.
8. Malnourished women are likely to give birth to underweight babies and to produce poor quality breast milk.
9. Marasmus is responsible for more childhood deaths in developing countries than any other single cause.
10. The most common nutritional deficiency disease worldwide is kwashiorkor.
11. A swollen belly, discoloration of the hair and skin, and stunted physical development are all classic symptoms of overall protein/calorie deprivation.
12. The world’s single most important cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation is Vitamin A deficiency.
13. Aquaculrure offers greater hope for increasing the world’s fish harvest than does intensifying efforts in ocean fishing.
14. World livestock production, which rose steadily from 1950-1990, has subsequently leveled off because of falling market demand for meat.
15. Anemia is a leading cause of high female mortality rates and problem pregnancies in many poor countries.
16. Aquaculture supplies almost all of the tuna fish found in American supermarkets.
17. Biotechnology can help reduce farmers’ reliance on chemical
fertilizers and pesticides and may make it possible to cultivate lands currently too dry or too saline for farming.
18. Among species commonly raised to supply animal protein for human consumption, fish are the most efficient energy converters, requiring just 2-3 pounds of feed to gain one pound of flesh.
19. In sub-Saharan Africa, grain production has remained stagnant at about one ton/ hectare since the early 1960s.
20. Significant increases in agricultural production achieved by technological breakthroughs such as the “miracle grains” or genetically modified crop and livestock varieties will ensure that all the world’s people enjoy an adequate diet.