In their article “patients with hippocampal amnesia cannot imagine new experiences’, which appeared in November 2006, Demis Hassabis, et al gives a deep analysis of amnesic patients. He asserts that amnesia is usually a profound loss of memory and caused by physical injuries of the brain or either by the intake of some toxic substances that usually affect the brain. He also affirms that memory loss can also be as a result of an emotional or traumatic event. Demis alleges that amnesic patients have a problem in remembering their earlier experiences and whether or not they can as well recall the new experiences is not yet confirmed.
The aptitude to tell about the future or even think about it usually offers a multitude of abilities that do prepare the people for most behaviors under different capacity. Test done on patients suffering from amnesia and who had damage of the hippocampus on whether or not they could come up with new experiences they had gone through on the grounds of some short verbal cues of common places. The results showed that the amnesic patients had impairment and had difficulties in matching of the subjects. The patients’ imagination lacked coherence and comprised of some unusual images when they were represented with an environ that was not holistic.
Therefore the hippocampus has a grave contribution as far as new experiences are concerned. The absence of hippocampus can highly affect people’s ability to remember their past. All of us have our past that does consist of experiences that are autobiographic based. The collections of these episodic memories are similar to traveling back in our past. Construction of events and episodic memories are almost similar on the grounds of all the engagement of the psychological processes are involved. They usually include imagery, presence, retrieving of the all the semantic information and the multimodal details.
Constructions are related with episodic memories but have an advantage because they are easy to manipulate as far as experimenting and systematizing is concerned. The medial temporal lobe and hippocampus structures do play a vital role as far as the support of our memories is concerned. Damage to any of them can cause amnesia. There is a misconception between current plausible events and the future events as far as amnesic patients are concerned thus the future researchers ought to determine on the two and come up with differences. Source #1: Used Original Well
In the article, “episodic future thought, an emerging concept”, Karl Szpunar et al, gives an analysis of amnesia, amnesic patients, and how the episodes whether future or current affects the amnesic patients. He gives an analysis of the close relationship that is patent between episodic future and the aptitude to recall the individual episodes from people’s past. Both semantic and episodic memory does play a major role in constructing the future episodic thoughts and their interaction is usually determined by accessing of the information in the memory.
He asserts that the aptitude to imagine the individual future episodes is termed as the episodic future thoughts. He gives of a case study of an amnesic patient who had exhibited patterns of memory loss because of a head trauma. The patient had retained some cognitive flexibility. He knew so many things on the past and could recite some present information. He also had some trivial problems on his semantic memory but could not remember any of his past. He could only recall members of the family, the car they had but nothing was associated with his personal life thus having an episodic memory.
He also had problems answering questions on his future and always claimed that his mind was totally blank. Karl Szpunar builds on the original article by concluding that episodic memory as well as episodic future is usually related because they offer autonoetic consciousness. The major ability to think on the future usually represents numerous abilities which do prepare people and organisms for some behaviors under different numerous capacity and damage of the brain structures can cause amnesia.
The extent on which the episodic future is usually comprised on prospective memories do depend on extents of simulation of future intentions and the length at which amnesic patients conjure up on future intentions as they make plans or decisions is still unclear. The remembrance of one’s past and envisioning on future do invoke some higher sets in overlapping of the brain regions. The posterior cortex, superior occipital and parahippocampal cortex are crucial as far as remembering and imagining of new experiences is concerned. Source #2: Used Original Poorly
In the article “on the nature of medial temporal lobe contributions to the constructive simulation of future events”, Daniel Schacter et al, asserts that future events as well as imagining do use similar machinery just like remembering the past events. Medial temporal lobe has been associated with the function of the memory. He affirms that there is new laboratory evidence that has linked the activities of MTL to future simulations. In the original article neural aspects, hippocampus and cognitive had been linked to future events.
Though the focus of simulation is usually critical in the issue of future events, there are no restrictions in the application of the events that are to come. Episodic memory helps in supporting of the future events. With MTL, the hippocampal regions do support the processes of relational memory. The original article states that so far the deficit of remembering new and past events among the amnesic patients has not yet been addressed. In this article, they observed both on the evidence of future and new experiences and results showed that MTL plays a major role as compared to hippocampus.
A study was also done to verify on whether future activities is usually associated with a prospective thinking or the general episodic events. The participants offered some episodic memories on actual experiences. The results showed that hippocampus was quite active in the events simulations when there was a relationship of the place, object and person. He asserts that the simulations of the future are usually built on flexibility that does combine past details. Future simulation is usually impaired in the older adults, exhibits impairments of memory.
In the original article there were no any link of age related issues to do with MTL but in this article he asserts that there might be a link. Source #3: Used Original in Unusual Way In the article “imagine there’s no heaven, it’s not easy (if you don’t have a functioning hippocampus”), Jonathan talks on the clinicopathologic relationship of brain lesions and behavior. He gives the role of frontal lobe in people and the amnesic patients. The damaging of hippocampal is usually associated with the detrimental of the episodic memory as well as the recalling of all the past events but has no role in imagination of the modern events.
He cites a case of five patients who had damages in their bilateral hippocampal in order to come up with new imagined experience. They were offered with short cues offering the same environment. They were asked to give their sensory details. The patients asserted that they had difficulties with those tasks and reported in only some few details, entities, spartial references and less action. They had less coherence. It is patent that the responsibility of hippocampus as far as learning is significant. The hippocampus is usually significant to connect the past and the future thoughts.
The role of hippocampus is yet to be verified whether it is usually related with complexities as far as planning on the future is concerned. The reason I chose this article is because I found the title of the article quite interesting in some way and reflective in another way. Though it is not funny not to have a functioning hippocampus, it is funny to relate the catastrophe with heaven. It is reflective in the fact that it makes me think of how life can be not imagining a scenario where I cannot imagine there is heaven because my brain has been damaged or I have amnesia.
The author then goes ahead and does not relate the title to the topic as there is no place he mentions heaven again. The title of the article is meant to captivate the readers who might think there is humor in the article only to find facts and scientific terms. This shows that hippocampus has a great role when it comes to imagining of the future. Reflection on the Research Process The whole research process was quite challenging on the grounds I had so many topics to choose from but deciding on the topic that will give me the best results was not easy.
I selected the topic on amnesia because I have always found it challenging for somebody to have loss of memory. Then it is interesting on the fact that I had a friend who was amnesia and when she got well we kept on reminding her of what she used to act and find it quite humorous. The most challenging aspect of the assignment is to go through the web looking for a topic and then as if that is not enough, to search for articles that had cited it well. I had also to decide on which of the numerous articles I got had cited the article correctly, inappropriately and unusually.
I took a lot of time looking for the article that had used the original article poorly since most of them had used it appropriately. I also found the article that had used the article unusually and chose “imagine there’s no heaven, it’s not easy (if you don’t have a functioning hippocampus”), because I found the title quite interesting and weird too. Relating amnesia and heaven is quite reflective and almost funny. I learnt that effectual research can be time consuming and challenging and some of the things that we do take literally most of the time are quite serious.
It also helped me to learn more about amnesia, some medical terminologies and how people who have brain damage usually act and the problems they go through as well as what causes them. It was also fascinating to note that most of the people are quite accurate in their citation thus I felt confident to rely on them in the future. At first I though it would be easy but even choosing a topic among all the topics I knew was hectic. I chose a topic on medicine field because I have always been fascinated by doctors and how well they present their topics and medical awareness to the public.
Finally, though it was challenging, it was one of the most wonderful assignment I have ever had and made me appreciate research and the people who rely on it for help. Works Cited Hassabis, Demis. , Kumaran, Dharshan Kumeran. , Vann, Seralynne& Eleanor. Patients with hippocampal amnesia cannot imagine new experiences. PNAS. (2006). Retrieved15, May, 2010< http://www. pnas. org/content/104/5/1726. abstract Silver, Jonathan. Imagine there’s no heaven, it’s not easy (if you don’t have a functioning hippocampus). Journal watch psychiatry. (2007).
Retrieved 15, May, 2010< http://psychiatry. jwatch. org/cgi/content/full/2007/212/6 Szpunar, Karl. , K, Jason. , McDermott, Kathleen& chan. Contextual processing in episodic future thought. Celebral Cortex. Retrieved 15, May, 2010< http://cercor. oxfordjournals. org/cgi/content/abstract/19/7/1539 Schacter, Daniel. , Addis, Donna. On the nature of medial temporal lobe contributions to the constructive simulation of future events. The royal society. (2009). Retrieved 15, May, 2010< http://rstb. royalsocietypublishing. org/content/364/1521/1245. abstract