Introduction Education generally is planned to develop the people in a society, In essence proper steps should be taken in the planning process. Nuhu (2007) sees vocational and technical education as that education, concerned with the acquisition of practical and applied skills, as well as basic scientific knowledge. It is only therefore a planned programme of theory and practical learning experiences that will guarantee acquisition of basic academic and life skills, achievement of high academic standards, leadership and preparation for industry-defined work.
In any organization, planning competence is required in setting goals, developing strategies and outlining tax schedules to facilitate accomplishment of such goals. Planning is the process of organizing the activities required to achieve a desired goal. It is basically concerned with the organization of men, money and materials (3M), which are one of the major functions of the top management, for without effective planning, a waste of time and resources is possible. It is also necessary to note therefore, that information is the key to planning and the need for adequate and timely information cannot be over emphasized.
One of the major philosophies of education in Nigeria is based on the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizen, this and most of the national educational aims and objectives can only be achieved through a properly planned vocational and technical education. Planning of vocational and technical education is basically to enhance human dignity and enthrone work and labor by making individuals acquire and develop enough saleable and employable skills, competencies, attitudes as well as knowledge to enable them gain and maintain basic employment or self-reliance for a comfortable living.
The Nigerian dream of building a truly egalitarian society can only be achieved through the effective use of vocational and technical education because it offers life-long education to all types of learners and enable them realize and develop their self-potentials maximally. In planning vocational and technical education, we decide in advance, what to be done, when, where, how and by whom it is to be done. It also entails working out before hand, how to achieve or accomplish the objectives of vocational and technical education, stated in the National policy on education (2004).
Which includes:- 1. Providing trained manpower in applied sciences, technology and business. 2. Providing the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, commercial and economic development. 3. Giving training and imparting necessary skills to individual who shall be self reliant economically. 4. Providing maximum options for learners to advance or branch out into gainful employment. 5. Making education concrete and understandable while general education should point out the vocational implication of all educational experiences. 6.
Providing pre-vocational orientation to students into the world of work. 7. Developing attitudes, basic educative skills and habits appropriate for work. 8. Satisfying the demands of the society that is technology-oriented and the needs of man for liberalizing experience in his educational growth and similar undertakings. 9. Providing professionals who can apply scientific knowledge to the improvement and solution of environmental problems for the use and convenience of man. 10. To give an introduction to professional studies in other technological field.
11. Enabling our young men and women to have intelligent understanding of the increasing complexity of technology. And in pursuance of these set goals and objectives of vocational and technical education, the main features of the curricular shall be structured in both theory and practical learning experiences. The curriculum shall consist of five components, which are:- 1. General education 2. Theory and related courses 3. Workshop practice 4. Industrial training 5. Small business management
For effective participation of students in practical work, the teacher-student ratio shall be kept at 1:20, and trainees completing vocational and technical education programmes shall have this three options and more:- a. To secure employment b. To set up their own business c. Pursue further education Without finance, the above objectives cannot be achieve, hence fiscal planning is the life wire of vocational and technical education Fiscal planning of vocational and technical education It refers to the most appropriate way to access finances (money) and determine the best course of action to take (budgeting) for future benefits.
Fiscal planning of vocational and technical education means deciding in advance, how funds will be sourced and allocated to each of the areas in vocational and technical education. This is a major function of the government, budget committee on education and educational administrators. It goes further to answers such questions such as:- 1. What are the sources of funding VTE? 2. How much fund is available? 3. Which areas should fund be allocated? 4. Why will such funds be allocated? What are the sources of funding VTE? VTE just like general education have specific sources of funding which include:- 1.
Government allocation 2. Internally generated revenue (IGR) 3. Education trust/tax fund. 4. International aid from world bank and developed countries 5. Non-governmental agencies (NGO) and more. How much fund is available? While the allocation to education tops those of other sectors in Nigeria’s 2013 budget proposal presented to the joint session of the National Assembly on the 10th of October 2012 by President Jonathan, the amount is still far below the standard set by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
The proposed allocation of N426 billion to the sector takes only 8. 7percent of the proposed total national budget of N4. 9 trillion, whereas the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), actually recommended for allocation of 26percent to the sector which is very vital to national development (Education) and VTE being very capital intensive requires more funding. So the question of how much fund is available will depend on how rich is the country in focus, and how much is allocated to education sector in general. Which areas should fund be allocated?
This may have to deal with a simple analysis of human and material resources that will be needed to run the various VTE programmes such as business education, technical education, agric and home economics education. Why will such funds be allocated? Funds should be made available to run VTE so as to achieve the aforementioned goals and in the long run achieve the national objectives of Nigeria and they include the building of:- 1. A free and democratic society. 2. A just and egalitarian society. 3. A united, strong and self reliant nation. 4. A great and dynamic economy. 5.
A land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens. Physical planning of VTE Physical planning entails the organization of land and infrastructure use, while emphasizing the need for providing a balanced economic development and conserving resources. There is a relationship between the fiscal and physical planning of VTE, as there can be no human and material presence without a good financial budget. The physical planning of VTE relates to land and material aspects in the planning process, and organizing human and material resources for effective operations of vocation and technical education.
This plan involves the following:- 1. A topographical survey on existing VTE schools. 2. Preparing architectural designs and drawings 3. Ensuring supervision of construction and rehabilitation work. 4. Provision of preventive maintenance facilities. 5. Designing laboratory for VTE workshop for practical learning. 6. Ensuring proper ventilation in classrooms and workshop. 7. Provision of appropriate office and class room furniture. 8. Ensuring availability of capable professionals in the various VTE programmes. Budgeting techniques in planning VTE
Budgetary processes constitute the primary mechanism for planning and controlling educational activities. Budgets have been defined in various ways by managers and school administrators because organizations are always functioning by monitoring the flow of money in order to attain its set goals and objectives. Knezevich (1975) defined budgeting as a financial or quantitative statement that has been prepared and approved prior to a defined period of time.
This statement includes policy to be pursued during the period for the attainment of objectives However, it is pertinent to state that education budget is a financial blue print for the operation of the educational sector for the fiscal year. Types of budgeting 1. Line – Item Budgeting-:
This is the traditional technique of budgeting which lists items on a purely object basis. It is also referred to as object – of – expenditure budget. This type of budgeting classifies expenditure on the basis of articles or items purchased. It refers to the grouping of expenditure into categories such as administrative staff salaries, academic staff salaries, supplies and materials, repairs and maintenance and so on. 2.
Performance Budget-: It is an improvement on traditional budgeting because it emphasis the use of brief explanations to support each item of expenditure. In this type of budget, one does not budget for money but one budget for the objective to be achieved. Moreover, Calden and Wildaryshy (1974) remarked that performance budgeting allow transactions to be identified by general purpose in order to distinguish between expenditures which contribute tp development and those which do not. 3. Functional budgeting-: This technique of budgeting simply explains the budget according to the head which it is expected to meet.
Ebhomien (1984) stated that the demerit of this type of budgeting includes the fact that objectives of such budgets are not always clearly stated because they are usually broadly defined. This form of budgeting does not give room for full accountability as it makes it difficult for someone to know how every little bit of the fund allocated is spent. Caffarella Model of Programmme Planning Cafferalla Program Planning Model Caffarella listed 12 steps to be considered in programme planning. The 12 steps are: •Discerning the context •Building a solid base of support •Identifying programme ideas.
•Sorting and prioritizing programme ideas •Developing programme objectives •Designing instructional plans •Devising transfer-of-learning plans •Formulating evaluation plans •Making recommendations and communicating results •Selecting formats, schedules and staff needs •Preparing budgets and marketing plans •Coordinating facilities and on-site events Caffarella presents the model as a circle where all 12 steps point toward the center circle, called the Interactive Model of Programme Planning, indicating that the process is non-sequential. The program planner can begin
the process at any one of the 12 steps, and does not need to work around the circle but rather each step is a reminder of important tasks to be completed during the process. How fiscal and physical planning has contributed to the growth of VTE 1. There is improved awareness and acceptance of vocational and technical education. 2. It has provided a basis for timely decision making. 3. There is more intervention in the area of infrastructure. For example, the new VTE workshop in our school. (UNIBEN) 4. It has promoted more effective and efficient utilization of available resources. 5.
It has ensured continuity of vocational and technical education in our various institutions. Factors to consider before planning vocational and technical education Initial assessment of existing VTE system:- It will be necessary to first assess the existing VTE system capacity, including funding levels and budget utilization, strengths, weaknesses and deficiencies before embarking on a large-scale system reform or expansion strategy. There is therefore the need to conduct specific baseline studies that also explore the existing links with the other levels of education and national labor policies.
Linkage with other sectors of the national economy:- There should be specification in clears terms between VTE and other sectors of the national economy in order to effectively link the VTE strategy to other national strategies and policies in the area of education and training, employment, and socio-economic development. Linkage with regional and international policies:- How does the national VTE strategy dovetail into existing regional and international education and training policy frameworks and protocols?
National VTE strategies should take into account the education and training protocols of regional groupings like The Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS), Southern African Development Community (SADC), and The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and also other acknowledged international agencies involved in education and skills training, such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and The International Labor Organization (ILO).
Linkage with the world of work:- Since the ultimate objective of VTE is employability and employment promotion, it is necessary to link training to the needs of the labor market. VTE must be relevant and demand-driven, rather than supply-driven and a stand-alone activity. In order to do this, data is required on the actual employability of VTE graduates, available job opportunities, and the evolving skills demands on the labor front. Determining the demand for skills is best achieved through country specific Labor Market Information Systems (LMIS) and other survey instruments.
Instructor training and professionalization of VTE staff:- The professional competence of vocational and technical education teachers is crucial to the successful implementation of any VTE strategy. Governments should therefore make conscious efforts, not only to train but also to retain teachers in the program. REFERENCES Adaralegbe, A. (2001). A Philosophy of Nigerian Education. Ibadan: Heinemann. Ahubaka, I. (1996). The Role of Science and Technology in National Development. Caffarella, R. S. (2001).
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