The population heterogeneity theory forecasts that, stress resistance is closely attached to mortality. Accordingly, persons in a population who pass away prematurely in life will likely be individuals who are less resistant to environmental stresses. Those persons with a high longetivity are those individuals who are very resistant, and these persons as a grouping might have an extremely gradually increasing rate of mortality, yielding an estimated mortality level while the less- resistant clusters pass away. (Viano, E, 1992)
Two different perspectives on the causes of marital violence: (Viano, E, 1992, p.158)
i.Feminist perspective: This perspective argues that, violence in the family is created by a patriarchal society in which the power of the male dominates. Historically, marital violence is viewed as been condoned by values as well as norms in the society. Consequently, one of the concrete subjects that the battered woman’s faction is confronted with is defying the tendency of the psychological health profession to renounce a feminist analysis.
ii.Sociological perspective: This perspective argues that, physical violence is not a manifestation of individual pathology. However; it is an essential feature of human association. Physical violence is viewed as almost normal and widespread, in other words, statistically common and ethnically accepted, feature of family life. Therefore, environmental interferences and social system are thought suitable.
What is “double jeopardy” risk regarding women being victims of marital violence?
“Double jeopardy” refers to individuals who are more at danger than the general populace since they are fatalities of other types of oppression: The following groups of females are at risk: (Viano, E, 1992)
Ø Disabled women and girls:
· Disabled girls are four times more probable (than the nationwide standard) to be sexually maltreated.
· Approximately 53% of women who have been disabled since birth have been maltreated, raped or physically attacked.
· Approximately 83% of disabled women will be sexually or physically attacked.
Ø Aboriginals /First states:
· An approximated 57% of indigenous females have been sexually maltreated.
· The rate of sexual abuse in children in a number of aboriginal societies is as elevated as 75 to 80 % for young women below the age of 8 years.
Ø Fresh Canadians:
· Dread of the police as well as fear of being exiled frequently keep expatriates and migrant females from reporting family mistreatment.
(a)What is child abuse?
Child abuse is the emotional/mental or physical ill-treatment of children. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) describes child mistreatment as every act or sequence of taking action or omission or commission by a care giver, parent or other close relative that results in injury, potential injury, or treat of injury to a child. The majority of child abuse takes place in a child’s residence, with a lesser amount taking place in the schools, associations or groups of people the child intermingles with. There are four main types of child abuse: sexual abuse, emotional/mental abuse as well as physical abuse. (Franchi, C, 1987, p. 1)
(b)The prevalence of child abuse in the United States:
According to the 1997 American National Committee to prevent child abuse, neglect represented approximately 54% of established incidences of child abuse, corporal abuse 22%, sexual exploitation 8%, and additional forms of mistreatment 12%. A report on the well-being of the child by UNICEF affirmed that, the United States ranked lowest amongst developed countries with reverence to the welfare of children. This investigation also established that child abuse and child neglect are far more widespread in families with a single parent than in family units with both parents. (Franchi, C, 1987, p. 1)
A study recently carried out by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention established that, approximately 1 in 50 babies in the United States are fatalities of nonfatal maltreatment or neglect. In the U.S, neglect is described as the failure to meet up the fundamental wants of the children comprising food, clothes, shelter as well as access to health care. Researchers established more than 91 000 incidences of neglect within a span of one year (beginning October 2005-September, 2006) with their information emanating from a list of cases authenticated by protective services organizations. (Franchi, C, 1987, p. 1)
5. The concepts and principles f Social Learning Theory:
The social learning theory is the theory that people are taught novel behavior through punishment or explicit reinforcement, or through observational studying of their environment’s social actors. If individuals observe optimistic, desired results in the observed conduct, they are more probable to emulate, adopt or model the conduct themselves. (Akers, R, 2009)
Social learning theory is obtained from Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904)’s work which suggested that social learning takes place through four major stages of limitation: (Akers, R, 2009)
ü Comprehending of concepts
ü Imitation of seniors.
ü Close contact.
ü Role model conduct.
Akers, R. (2009) Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and
Deviance. Transaction Publishers.ISBN:1412809991, 9781412809993.
Franchi, C. (1987) Child abuse and its consequences: observational approaches. CUP
Archive. ISBN: 0521316146, 9780521316149.
Viano, E. (1992) Intimate violence: interdisciplinary perspectives. Taylor & Francis.
ISBN: 560322446, 9781560322443.
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