In its known usage, the word Reality pertains to something that actually exists and which can be felt by the senses. Metaphysics, a branch of Philosophy, tries to discern reality from illusion, as it investigates on things that are real which could also be just illusions of what people want to be real—ideals. However, what can be sensed from the surroundings does not seem to be just mere illusions, as the body and the mind react to everything it senses.
In Philosophy, reality usually pertains to existence since it is contrasted with nonexistence—those unreal—and mere possibilities—could be real but does not necessarily exist, unless discovered. To this date, there are still speculations about the Nature of Reality. It could be possible that people are living on their dream worlds, and not in reality (like in the Matrix movie). However, these people perceive their dream worlds as an equal of reality. Hence, they are still living in reality unless someone drags them out of that reality and into another level of reality, which is more real.
2. On a nutshell, the documentary film “Zen and Now” by Alan Watts points out that people should live in the Now which is actually the main principle of Zen philosophy. Unnecessary baggage could only hinder the person’s progress, in moving on with his or her life. Personal progress seems to be the undying aim of Zen philosophy as it promotes moving forward rather than shackling the self behind in the past. It also does not entail the idea of expecting what could happen in the future. The primary focus is the Now, neither the past nor the future.
The principle of Zen pertains to establishing a harmony with the self before people could establish it with others and with the world. Hence, it should be quite simple to understand what Alan Watts wanted to convey. Living in the now is the best way to live life since it gets rid of the excess baggage that drags the person towards his or her sinkhole—the past. This baggage usually make up of the person’s regrets, basically anything negative about his or her past (events, personalities, and the like). 3. The Zimbardo film is about the Stanford Prison Experiment which was conducted by Philip Zimbardo.
Basically, it entailed the role-playing of both prisoners and guards by participants who were screened before being accepted. As the film would show, the participants’ imagination grew out of hand, even with the presence of the research team. It may possibly be an act out of human nature, when these participants were given their respective roles. They acted as if it were the real deal; guards taking out their frustration towards the prisoners and prisoners would plan of escaping or creating riots within the prison.
The role-playing seemed to unleash genuine human nature of many participants as some would show sadistic tendencies towards the prisoners. It also seemed that imagination initially played a part on this “unleashing” but it was more the work of the subconscious that guided these people to completely assume their respective roles. The environment, upon which a person belongs to, can have an astounding effect towards him or her. It can actually alter some of the person’s traits as it is part of human nature to adapt to certain environments.
It also influences the person’s perception of his or her reality as some situations and conditions involved in the environment would affect the person. 4. The Milgram experiment entailed the testing of a person’s obedience to an authority who orders would instruct him or her to do unethical things that opposes with the person’s conscience. Many of the experiment’s participants were reluctant of administering a high voltage shock of 450 towards the receiver. As the result would show, the willingness of the participant to administer the 450-volts shock greatly conflicts with his or her conscience.
They have to be coerced, threatened, or abused in order to successfully administer the shock; unless it served a higher purpose. Humans do not obey commands that can be classified as unethical, immediately. Human conscience seems to prevent the person to follow the commands without hesitation. The experiment could already be perceived as unethical because it entailed the electro-shocking of the learner by the teacher—the participant. The relationship between authority and conscience was tested in this experiment. Many of the participants were reluctant to follow the commands of the authority figure.
They showed signs of disobeying the authority figure since they would believe that what they were tasked to perform is unethical. 5. Steve Pinker’s stand is to refurbish the current English Language that has been ravaged by various media influences, by reclaiming the respect for the English language. Every person is capable to speak grammatically but somehow they would choose to follow the English language that popular culture seems to promote (as mentioned, rockers, surfers, valley girls), as well as the standards proposed by Mavens which he utterly despises.
As long as these two would continue to promote their version of English, then relearning proper grammar would be a hard task. The promotion of the proper usage of English will definitely be a tough road ahead for the likes of Pinker, as media and the mavens would continue to influence society. 6. Both the environment and free will play a significant role in shaping a person into what he or she can become in the future. Free will would involve decisions to certain situations that could actually be summoned by the person’s environment.
However, free will would ultimately shape the person more significantly than the environment as it is his or her decisions that promote the development of the person. The environment could only play a minor role on the person’s development. It is the person’s free will that shapes his or her future. I believe on free will as the catalyst in shaping the person. Free will enables the person to participate with the environment like making the right decisions for certain situations wherein some are raised by the environment.
A person could not and should not rely on fate in order to help him or her progress in life or move forward. It is all the work of free will that allows such change to occur within the person and his or her life. 7. Charlie Manson experienced social regression in his childhood life, as his mother rejected him a few times; at one point, even trading him for a pitcher of alcohol. In prison, he learned the teachings of Scientology (a cult led by L Ron Hubbard) and applied many of it to his own established philosophy that he and his followers believed in.
The growing crisis of the racial tension between the whites and blacks made him fear that one day, the blacks will take over the whites’ position in society, upon which believing that the Manson family will then have control over the blacks and their society. The Manson philosophy (coded: Helter Skelter) was as destructive as it can be, as it involved spurring chaos in society. His followers were made to believe that they were following the commands of a Jesus Christ incarnate, as they were forced to do anything he commands.
It was not fate that brought him into becoming the person that everyone feared in the past. It was his free will that spurred the numerous murders, ordered his “family” to commit these killings, and sent him to prison. Apparently, he did not have control over his free will as he did everything that seemed to please him. 8. There would be a noise created as it falls to the ground. However, it would not be heard by anything or anyone as there are no living creatures in the forest; unless one would consider the surrounding trees as living things (frankly speaking, they are).
It is for certain that there will be noise created as the tree would come crashing down, but without a creature to hear the noise, then it would not be considered as noise in the first place. Two sides could be drawn up from this question: (1) There is a noise since it fell to the ground hard (I suppose it would be hard), and (2) there would not be a single noise as no living creature heard it. For (1), anything can make a noise, intentionally or unintentionally. So it is impossible for the tree to fall down hard silently.
In (2), even if the tree creates a noise while falling down, who would be there to receive the sound and conclude it as a sort of noise? That seems to be the main problem here as most living creatures (if not, all) could hear sound. Then again, noise was created but nothing was able to receive it and conclude that it was noise. 9. The Sensory Transduction involves the detection and translation of any form of stimulus. It involves the five senses, making sensory transduction an indispensable part of people’s lives.
It involves how people would interpret what they could sense. It may be possible for people to control the transduction of sensorial vibrations (usually associated with feelings), although it might require immense amounts of concentration and will power. The brain would translate these sensorial vibrations for the benefit of the individual; which he or she later translates into experience by how he or she reacts to the translated sensorial vibrations (by the brain).
On the other hand, these sensorial vibrations may travel too fast for the person, enabling instinct to take its course in providing the individual how to react on the given situation; given that he or she already experienced the same condition before. I believe people could control the transduction of sensorial vibrations simply because they could choose what they want to sense. A child would close his or her eyes on the scariest parts of the horror movie simply because he or she does not want to get scared. However, it could also be considered that instinct comes into play when the person would fail to react to these transductions.
10. Universal reality is simply the existence of all things; the totality of time, space, and being. Yes, there is a Universal reality in people’s lives because everything around them exists and it will continue to exist until it is removed from time, space, and being. Basically, Universal Reality makes up everything that people could sense around them inside this chamber. People may be unaware of this fact but the Universal reality does not remain constant forever, as it could experience constant changes; changes that enable people to adapt to an altered perception of that supposed Universal reality.
Somehow it is thought that all realities originated from a single source of energy or force, upon which all top religions considered as God—the universal being. Basically, the answer would be that there is an existing Universal reality as it entails everything that people would perceive as real and those that can be unreal—as some individuals could perceive them while others could not. Universal reality is all that exists in people’s realities. Hence, there is such a thing.