Fascists perceived nation as an organic society whose working will be assured through inclusion of strong leadership which will organize and wage war against other territories so as to ensure a strong nation. As opposed to Marxist ideologies of a stateless society, Fascism favored establishment of strong state lead by an autocrat whose power and decisions should not be questioned. It encouraged singular communal identity. This ideology asserted that individualism should not exist as a culture of the country.
Instead, a culture encouraging collective nationwide society and state should be encouraged. It is from such a culture, individuals should derive their identity. The ideology also encouraged totalitarian state whose political system comprise of one party. As dictatorship ideology, opposition and openness is highly forbidden. War and violent acts against the enemies to fascist nation is viewed as the way forward to nation regeneration and success. This ideology is opposed to rationalism and egalitarianism, and instead fosters promotion of discipline, action, will and hierarchy.
Fascism seeks to end economic and social class conflict so as to establish national solidarity led by a strong state. Experienced military should rule by regimenting the nation’s production forces and ensuring independence of the nation. The ideology assert that modernization should be state controlled so as to ensure orderly changes that will eradicate dangers associated with independent initiative and pluralism so as to ensure order in the society. Germany, Italy and Hungary were once a under fascism. The ideology is against capitalism and communism ideologies.
It is a ‘third position’ based ideology which support working class interests, support liberation movement by developing countries, and ally to ethnic separatists. (Camprise 1967). Communism ideologies seek to establish a classless society, where resources are communally owned, and income equality is highly encouraged. According to Karl Marx pure communism will be achieved through proletarian revolution that will ensure stateless, classless and a society free from oppression. Communism encourages democratically made decisions which are based on majority will.
Participation of every member in economic and political sphere is encouraged. Contemporary communism society encourages authoritarian government where resources allocation is determined by central planning. It encourages one party lead state where political decisions are made by majority and everybody has to follow the policy decided on. Examples of communism economies are the former Soviet Union, and Cuba (Camprise 1967). Therefore, there are a number of similarities and differences between Fascism and communism. In both ideologies, individualism is discouraged while collective national society is emphasized.
Central planning is also encouraged so as to ensure allocation of resources. Both ideologies are opposed to capitalism and free market as the best way of ensuring smooth flow of the economy. However, communism discourages totalitarian rule which is a core aspect of fascism. Fascism encourages war and violent acts against other countries while communism encourages diplomatic and mutual relationship. Communism encourages egalitarianism which is discouraged by fascism. Answer to question 2 Capitalism was an economy set up which was based on classical economists’ claims.
Capitalism encouraged free market with no government intervention, high production, and furthering of individual self interests. Capitalists believed that the only way to ensuring wealth accumulation is through exchange in the market. The capitalists were the owners of means of production. They emphasized on increasing the production, supplying this to the market while fostering to make substantial profits and accumulate more wealth. This ideology was associated with exploitation of the workers so as to ensure more profits to the capitalists.
Many people attribute the great depression of 1930 to capitalism ideologies. (Camprise 1967). The great depression was a worldwide economic depression before the World War II. It reality started to be felt in 1929. It originated from USA owing to the fall of stock market (October 1929). It led to increase in unemployment, low income, low prices, and undesirable profits. Such condition discouraged investments and production activities whose effect was low employment and poor economic performance. There was low demand which could not meet the supply from the capitalists.
From USA, this depression spread to other parts of the world and its economic effect. (Camprise 1967). However, the great depression did not pose a danger of communism revolution in USA. In fact what had happened is that the economy had produced more than the economic agents could demand. Income inequalities resulting from capitalism activities as well as poor monetary policies by the government restricted demand in the economy. The purchasing power of economic agents had been contracted. This led to low demand for goods and services in the economy.
Consequently, low prices, low profits to the firms’ owners resulted. Government role in terms of controlling interest rates, money supply and curtailing bank failure had not been emphasized. So the US did not need a communism revolution but properly planned government monetary and fiscal policies that will ensure smooth flow of the economy emphasizing a free market. Reference Camprise, J (1967). Conflict and Co-Operation: An Introduction to Some Problems of International Relations in the Twentieth Century. J. M. Dent