India comprises various farming systems that are strategically utilized, according to the locations where they are most suitable. The farming systems that significantly contribute to the domestic GDP of India are subsistence farming, organic farming, and industrial farming. Regions throughout India differ in types of farming they use; some are based on horticulture, ley farming, agro forestry, and many more. Due to India’s geographical location, certain parts experience different climates, thus affecting each region’s agricultural productivity differently.
India is very dependent on its monsoon-based periodic rainfall. If it weren’t for large government involvement in storage of water for agricultural irrigation, only some parts of India would receive rainfall throughout the year, making many other regions arid. Dependency on these monsoons is risky because there are great variations in the average amount of rainfall received by the various regions. Season-to-season variations of rainfall are also significant and the consequences of these are bumper harvests and crop searing. For this reason, irrigation in India is one of the main priorities in Indian farming. India agriculture has an extensive background which goes back to at least 10 thousand years.
Currently the country holds the second position in agricultural production in the world. Despite the steady decline in agriculture’s contribution to the country’s GDP, India agriculture is the biggest industry in the country and plays a key role in the socioeconomic growth of the country. India is the second biggest producer of wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, silk, groundnuts, and dozens more. It is also the second biggest harvester of vegetables and fruit, representing 8.6% and 10.9% of overall production, respectively. India also has the biggest number of livestock in the world, holding 281 million. In 2008, the country housed the second largest number of cattle in the world with 175 million. Climate Effect on Farming Systems
Each region in India has a specific soil and climate that is only suitable for certain types of farming. Regions on the eastern side of India experience less than 50 cm of rain annually, so the farming systems are restricted to cultivate crops that can withstand drought conditions and farmers are usually restricted to single cropping. On the contrary, the western side of India has an average of 100–200 cm of rainfall annually