Not all children grow from infancy through their adolescent years without experiencing some bumps along the way. While every child is unique and special, sometimes they encounter emotions, feelings or behavior that cause problems in their lives and the lives of those around them. Parents often worry when their teens have difficulty coping with their things, emotions, get involved with alcohol, drugs, or cannot get along with members of the family or people of their own age bracket. A parent’s relationship and nurturing role with a young person continues to be important, although the relationship have to be flexible to adapt to the teenager’s changing needs. At this time, there is a need for gradual change from a more authoritative approach to a more collaborative approach. Parents have to face the reality that their child is no longer a child, is becoming independent, and is no longer within their control.
They may feel distressed as they perceive that the young person won’t listen to them, or does the opposite of what they may suggest. They may have to watch their young person disregard the things they thought they taught them were important, such as ways to look after their health, or their future goals. Parents have to learn to ‘let go’, not of the relationship, but of their dreams for the young person, and their authority over the young people, so that they may allow a young person to develop his/herown dreams and greater self-responsibility.
Adolescent maturation is a personal phase of development where children have to establish their own beliefs, values, and what they want to accomplish out of life. Because adolescents constantly and realistically appraise themselves, they are often characterized as being extremely self-conscious. However, the self-evaluation process leads to the beginning of long-range goal setting, emotional and social independence, and the making of a mature adult. According to Erik Erickson’s Pyschosocial Development, on the fifth stage, which is Identity vs Role Confusion, the child struggles to find his or her identity in social interactions with friends and family. When he/she reaches the ages of fourteen and fifteen, also adolescent strives to loosen his/her ties from his/her parents and emotions and intellectual capacities also increase.
Adolescents begin to consider their futures and decide on careers. During this stage they face the conflict of identity versus role confusion. If the adolescent formulates a satisfying plan of action about his/her future, then the outcome is positive and establishment of identity is achieved. Adolescents who do not develop this sense of identity may develop role confusion and aimlessly move through life without any plan of action or sense of security about their future. Adolescents need to make use of their newly acquired skills of logical thinking and ability to make judgments rationally. The adolescent becomes adventuresome, and experiments with different ideas. This plays an important role in finding one’s relations to oneself, groups, and opposite sex.
During this time, the adolescent battles over his own set of values versus the set established by parents and other adult figures. The adolescent also begins to take on more control of educational and vocational pursuits and advantages. It is during this time that adolescents’ self-dependence and a sense of responsibility become apparent, along with their quest to contribute to society and find their place in it. This study on the effect of family system to the psychosocial development of adolescent is vital as a period of growth in which identity formation is addressed. This can be interpreted to mean that the role of family is lessening or that family has only a limited role in the lives of young people at this time.
Research shows, however, that ongoing positive family connections are protective factors against a range of health risk behaviors. Although the nature of relationships is changing, the continuity of family connections and a secure emotional base is crucial for the positive development of young people. The study on the effect of family system to the psychosocial development of adolescent demonstrates the importance of the family role in helping children establish their identity upon reaching adolescence. This study made use of the of the Family System Theory which consists the family structure, family interactions, and family functions and Eriksons’ Psychosocial Development Theory. Through this theory, this study have been very effective in identifying the effect of family system to the psychosocial development of adolescents.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
“Family members are profoundly affecting each other’s thoughts, feelings, and actions that it often seems as if people are living under the same “emotional skin.”- (One Family’s Story by Murray Bowen)
The Laboratory High School of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines was first known as the Philippine College of Commerce Laboratory High School in 1955 which tends to offer a curriculum in secondary level that will affiliate to the rising technical developments during that time of the cyber age. Laboratory High Schools or demonstration schools are elementary or secondary school operated in association with a university, college, or other teacher education institution and used for the training of future teachers, educational experimentation, educational research, and professional development. Students in the secondary level are expected to be more matured than they were in their elementary days. The Laboratory High School (LHS) aims to practice the discipline, the academic excellence, the nationalism, and the commerce among their students.
Philippine School of Commerce was converted through the Republic Act 779 into the Philippine College of Commerce which offered the 4-year Bachelor of Science in Business Education, an academic development that made imperative the establishment of a secondary school where senior Bachelor of Science in Business Education students could observe and practice-teach.
There were only eight pioneer teachers when the laboratory high school opened in 1955. Listed in the roster were Virginia Aldana, Purificacion Cecilio, Ruth David, Norma Diamante, Fulcida Eligado, Luz Gonzales, and Gloria Talastas. They were soon joined by 18 new recruits: Natividad Agana, Lydia Camit, Racquel Bernardo, Elsie Borja, Carolina Calderon, Fermin Cruz, Rosalina de Lara, Ernesto Dumlao, Luisa de Lara, Soledad London, Celia Rejuso, Julie del Rosario, Tomas San Pedro, Elena Sta. Ana, Francisco Santos, Victoria Tanjutco, Carmen Tupas, and Lydia Villa. Serving at the helm of the school was a succession of able and competent principals: Apolinaria Seva, Brigido Sadsad, Gloria Talastas, Angelina Manapat, Rosario Battung, Josefina Tan, Rosa Guirao, Fe Salting, Charito Montemayor, Liceria
Lorenzo, Carmencita L. Castolo, and the incumbent Corazon C. Tahil.
The trek to computerization began when Prof. Charito A. Montemayor initiated the computerized enrolment. Ably helping her was an alumnus of the LHS, Prof. Angelito Pastrana who was connected with the PUPILS, a group of IT specialists tasked to handle the computerization projects of the University. Dr. Liceria Lorenzo continued what her predecessor started. During her term, report cards were also computerized. The LHS observed its Golden Anniversary with aplomb. The big event involving the alumni, faculty (including the retirees), and administrators was competently supervised by Dr. Lorenzo.
The original Laboratory School run by John Dewey at the University of Chicago in 1938 is now what most laboratory schools follow as the model of experiential education based. John Dewey originally wrote about the benefits of experiential education in 1938, explaining, “There is an intimate and necessary relation between the processes of actual experience and education.”(Dewey, J., Experience and education. p. 7) Dewey suggested that each student’s experience will be individualized based on past experiences, and not all students will take away the same outlook of the concept. Thus, the experiential learning classroom mimics society, where all people have different views of topics and information.
Dewey asserts that not all experiences “are genuinely or equally educative” (Dewey, J., Experience and education. p. 13) and suggests that in progressive education, the quality of the experience is essential. Dewey also maintains that in order for education to be progressive, there must be a solid philosophy that privileges experiences that are “fruitful and creative” and that enhance subsequent learning experiences.
“It is human to have a long childhood; it is civilized to have an even longer childhood. Long childhood makes a technical and mental virtuoso out of man, but it also leaves a life-long residue of emotional immaturity in him.” – Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994)
According to Erik Erickson adolescence ranges from 12-18 years old. Teens during this time need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Teens during this time are in their secondary level of education (Arlene F. Harder. The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson). Success to this stage will lead to an ability to stay true to oneself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self-reliance. Social relationship during this time is one of the most important events in this stage.
The first social environment of an individual is within his family. Therefore, whatever a child may acquire to his family will be his basis in facing off the society. But individuals during this time are more expose to school environment than to family environment, which means that superior parental guidance should be exercise. Transition from childhood to adulthood may confuse or insecure them about how they will fit into the society. As they seek to establish a sense of self, teens may experiment with different roles, activities and behaviors. According to Erikson, this is important to the process of forming a strong identity and developing a sense of direction in life. The family should be the one who supports their adolescent child throughout the whole period of transition.
This particular study attempt to determine the effect of family system to the psychosocial development of the 4th year students in Polytechnic University of the Philippines Laboratory High School year 2012-2013 Figure 1.1 Vicinity map shows the vicinity map where the study is conducted. Figure 1.2 Vicinity map shows the Laboratory High School, Polytechnic University of the Philippines where the area where the research was conducted.
Figure 3. The Family System Theory
Bowen’s Family System Theory
These assumptions are diagramed in figure 1. The components and their relationship to the whole system are as follows:
1. Family structure consists of the descriptive characteristics of the family. This includes the nature of its membership and its cultural and ideological style. These characteristics are the input into the
interactional system. In this study, the family structure used is the structure according to authority which is the: 2. Family interaction is the hub of the system. It is the process of interaction among family members that determines the rules by which the family is governed. This is the family’s level of cohesion, its adaptability, and its communication style. Finally, these interactions work together to serve individual members and collective family needs.
3. Family function is the output of the interactional system. Utilizing the resources available through its structure (input), the family interacts to produce responses that fulfill its needs. This is the relationship of the family.
4. The family life cycle introduces the element of change into the family system. As the family moves through time, developmental and non-developmental changes alter the family structure and/or the family’s needs. The family life cycle in this study includes the Accepting Adolescence, or the stage of adolescence, this includes the developmental changes of the individual as change increases. Particularly this includes: a. Deal with emerging sexual identity of child.
b. Accept increasing influence of peer group.
c. Promote differentiation and autonomy of child. According to Dr. Bowens in his Family System Theory or the Bowen Theory views the families as living organisms and stresses boundaries, rules, expectations, and behaviors that help the family maintain equilibrium. Bowen family systems theory is a theory of human behavior that views the family as an emotional unit and uses systems thinking to describe the complex interactions in the unit. It is the nature of a family that its members are intensely connected and family members so profoundly affect each other’s thoughts, feelings, and actions and relationships. Erik Erickson Psychosocial Development (Stage 5 Identity vs. Role Confusion)
The eight-stage theory has a definite age span for each social stages, and in this study that focused on the student ages 14-16 years of age, which belong to the fifth stage of Psychosocial development, the Identity vs. Role Confusion stated that during this stage of development the child struggle to find his or her identity and the social interactions with friends and family. The child acquires self-certainty as opposed to self-consciousness and self-doubt and is newly concerned with how they appear in front of other people. Adolescents may experiment with different roles, activities, and behaviors. According to Erikson, this is important to the process of forming a strong identity and developing a sense of direction in life but there is possible identity disturbance on the part of the child, changes on the social relationship primarily on the peer group and family, emphasis on the peer preferences and social interactions.
These are the following psychosocial changes undergone by the Adolescents during the fifth stage of Psychosocial Development according to Erik Erickson: a. Independence: Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, and housing. b. Family and Friends Relationships: Adolescence is often a time when the values and behaviors of young people are said to become increasingly distant and detached from those of their parents and other adults. Generational Stake: Adolescents have a stake in believing that their parents are limited, old-fashioned, and out of touch. This divergence happens with good reason; a Adolescents do need to break free from their parents to find their own way.
Relations with peers are vital to the transition from childhood to adulthood. There are four special, constructive functions performed by peer relationships:
Pubertal self-help – Adolescents find friends where they can adapt the consecutive changes happening to their development and physical changes in their body.
Social support – Adolescents seeks protection against and confusion at their age level experiencing the same developmental changes from childhood to adulthood
Identity formation – Adolescents’ tend to have friends that would be having the same characteristics that would mirror and clarify his or her Identity.
c. Exploration of Identity: Explore possibilities and begin to form their own identity. The goal of many teens is to establish an identity. Identity Achievement: Erickson’s term for attainment of identity-ideally established by reconsidering the goals and values set by the parents and culture, then accepting some and rejecting others. Three specific aspects areas of identity achievement follow in this study: 1. Ethnic (Cultural)
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Specifically, the research will answer the following questions in this study:
The following null hypotheses were tested in this study. There is no significant relationship between: 1. There is no significant relationship between the Family System and the Psychosocial Development of the respondents.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Research indicates that the development of a child’s behavior is strongly influenced by how well his or her family functions. It is during this time that children are dependent upon adults to meet their needs that their concept of the importance of family develops. The purpose of the study is to determine the extent of awareness of family influences on the well-being of a child.
The research aims to know how the members of the family affect each others thoughts, feelings, and actions; how they interact with other people and how they function as a family. This paper will provide explanations of high school student’s behavior and emotionality when it comes to their families and peers. The survey instrument used in this study requested demographic data. Research limitations/implications – Research, teaching and practice must be conducted with the recognition of the family system relative to the student’s progress in the school. Social implications – Recognizing the family system for its unique social contributions will have impact on future research, teaching, and practice. Originality/value – This review of previous research offers researchers a broader and comprehensive view of the family system, and their respective interactions.
Researchers, educators, and practitioners will benefit from this paper. To the Parents, this research will aim to help the family develop a much broader understanding of the child. It will also give benefits on how to guide the child on their crucial stages in life. To the Teachers, this research will be of help for giving the child a much clearer view of his surroundings. It will surely help teachers in nurturing or developing a child’s personality or behavior inside the classroom. In understanding the current developmental changes the students are undergoing, the teacher will have a clearer view of the nature of his students. To the future researchers. The research of the study will hopefully become the guidelines of the future researchers that will provide them the data and information related to their present future research work.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
This study is limited only to Laboratory High School Student of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Mabini Campus at Sta. Mesa Manila during the academic year 2012-2013. The well-known psychologist, Eric Erikson, said that adolescence needs help to cope with their struggles to know who they are, what they are and what they will become if they are to establish a clear sense of identity. This study will help students of same age and educational attainment to determine the role of their family into their lives and their psychosocial factors determining identity and relationships as they go through their adolescent years.
Determining the factors of family system to the psychosocial development of the students is the focus of this research. The information needed will be gathered using the survey questionnaire. All information and conclusion drawn from this study were obtained only to this particular group of students.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Authoritative approach Best form of classroom management style, it is the one most closely associated with appropriate student behaviors. Authority:The power to determine, adjudicate, or otherwise settle issues or disputes; jurisdiction; the right to control, command, or determine. Bumps: To demote, promote or dismiss
Collaborative approach:A situation in which to or more people learn or attempt to learn something together. Demographic data:Relating to the dynamic balance of population especially with regard to density and capacity for expansion or decline. Distressed: Suffering from anxiety, sorrow or pain
Experiential Education:A philosophy of education that describes the process that occurs between a teacher and a student that infuses direct experiences with the learning environment and content. Family System Theory:Suggest that individuals cannot be understood in isolation from one another, but rather as a part of their family, as the family is an emotional unit. Gradual change:Process occurs in small stages over a long period of time, rather than suddenly. Ideology:A set of doctrines or beliefs that form the basis of a political economic or other system. International System: A complete, coherent system of units used for scientific work, in which fundamental quantities are length, time, electric current, temperature, luminous intensity, amount of substance and mass. IT Specialist:Specialist typically focus on a specific computer network, database or system administration function. Lessening: To reduce in size, extent or degree.
Predecessor:One that precedes; especially: a person who has previously occupied a position or office to which another has succeeded. Progressive Education:A reaction against the traditional style of teaching which teaches facts largely at the expense of understanding what is being taught. Psychosocial Development: How a person’s mind, emotions, and maturity level develop throughout the course of their lifetime. Self-Evaluation:A process in which an individual rates the quality of his or her own work. Technical Development:Application of knowledge to the practical aims of human life or to changing and manipulating the human environment. Vital:Fundamentally concerned with or affecting life or living beings: as (1) : tending to renew or refresh the living invigorating (2) : destructive to life: mortal Virtuoso:A person who has special knowledge or skill in a field.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE FOREIGN LITERATURE
According to Gavazzi and Sabatelli (2003) the measures of family system patterns of interaction and the individuation process were examined as mediators of psychosocial development in a sample of college students. Included is an initial exploration into the construction and development of self-report, paper-and-pencil instruments designed to measure the two exceedingly complex constructs of differentiation and individuation.
Indicators of family conflict, parental intrusiveness, and psychological interconnectedness were found to be significant predictors of psychosocial maturity, supporting the theoretical expectation that distance regulation patterns indicative of well differentiated families and age-appropriate manifestations of the individuation process would be independently and interactively related to psychosocial adaptation. Also, the exploration of gender-related differences revealed that males were significantly more financially and psychologically independent from family members than were females but did not differ on any of the other family system and individual variables explored. According to Martire and Schulz (2000) Interactions with close family members have consequences for the emotional and physical well-being of individuals who are dealing with a chronic physical illness.
Therefore, inclusion of a close family member in psychosocial interventions for chronic illnesses is a logical treatment approach that has the potential to boost the effects of intervention on the patient and also beneﬁt the family member. However, randomized, controlled studies indicate that such family-oriented interventions generally have small effects. The efficacy of these treatment approachesmight be enhanced by targeting specific interactions that emerging research identifies as promoting or derailing healthy behaviors and by better incorporating strategies from family caregiver interventions. In addition, family oriented interventions should be more fully evaluated, by assessing the benefits for both patients and family members.
Future research in this area can tell us much about how and when to involve family in treatment of specific chronic illnesses and, in turn, may inform conceptual models of the impact of family interactions on health. Psychosocial or behavioral interventions for chronic illness, such as patient education, support groups, and cognitive behavioral therapies, have been shown to have effects on health and emotional well-being that surpass improvements attained with usual medical care alone (i.e., medication or surgery). Because of the links between family relationships and chronic illness management, some researchers have incorporated a close family member such as the spouse in these interventions.
The rationale for involving a family member in treatment can be found in the bio psychosocial model of health and illness and specific marital and family-systems frameworks. These conceptual models and frameworks have been supported by empirical evidence showing that close social relationships, especially the marital relationship, affect biological systems, health behaviors, and psychological well-being.
In the book of Jossey Bass; “The health of adolescents: Undertaking and facilitating biological, bahavioral and social development.”(1992) On the third chapter of the book there discussed the psychosocial changes in the development of an adolescent. It is included the Psychosocial Development of the Adolescent, during the entire process of maturation and separation-individuation, the adolescent has a personal set of task to be accomplished in the service of identity formation. During early adolescence, the intensity and exclusivity of earlier attachments to the parents begin to give away. At a time of increased urges and physiological readiness for erotic aggressive action, closeness to family members can be quite threatening. While an expanded peer life and increased social activities facilitate distancing. In the book titled; “Influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use.
Journal of early adolescence” by Diana Baumrind suggested the convincing links between parenting styles and the effects these styles have on children that the majority of parents display one of three different parenting styles. There are four kinds of parenting. First is the Authoritarian parenting; In this style of parenting, children are expected to follow the strict rules established by the parents. Failure to follow such rules usually results in punishment. Authoritarian parents fail to explain the reasoning behind these rules. These parents have high demands, but are not responsive to their children. According to Baumrind, these parents “are obedience- and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation.”
Second is the Authoritative Parenting; like authoritarian parents, those with an authoritative parenting style establish rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However, this parenting style is much more democratic. Authoritative parents are responsive to their children and willing to listen to questions. When children fail to meet the expectations, these parents are more nurturing and forgiving rather than punishing. Baumrind suggests that these parents “monitor and impart clear standards for their children’s conduct. They are assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. Their disciplinary methods are supportive, rather than punitive. They want their children to be assertive as well as socially responsible, and self-regulated as well as cooperative”
Third is the Permissive Parenting; Permissive parents, sometimes referred to as indulgent parents, have very few demands to make of their children. These parents rarely discipline their children because they have relatively low expectations of maturity and self-control. According to Baumrind, permissive parents “are more responsive than they are demanding. They are nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation” (1991). Permissive
parents are generally nurturing and communicative with their children, often taking on the status of a friend more than that of a parent.
Lastly is the Uninvolved Parenting; an uninvolved parenting style is characterized by few demands, low responsiveness and little communication. While these parents fulfill the child’s basic needs, they are generally detached from their child’s life. In extreme cases, these parents may even reject or neglect the needs of their children.
In the book titled; “Child Development. 8th ed. United States of America: Pearson Education, Inc.” By Berk Laura stated that Child development that occurs from birth to adulthood was largely ignored throughout much of history. Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults and little attention was paid to the many advances in cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth that occurs during childhood and adolescence.
An understanding of child development is essential, allowing us to fully appreciate the cognitive, emotional, physical, social and educational growth that children go through from birth and into early adulthood. Some of the major theories of child development are known as grand theories; they attempt to describe every aspect of development, often using a stage approach. Others are known as mini-theories; they instead focus only on a fairly limited aspect of development, such as cognitive or social growth.
Theorist Erik Erikson also proposed a stage theory of development, but his theory encompassed human growth throughout the entire human lifespan. Erikson believed that each stage of development was focused on overcoming a conflict. For example, the primary conflict during the adolescent period involves establishing a sense of personal identity. Success or failure in dealing with the conflicts at each stage can impact overall functioning. During the adolescent stage, for example, failure to develop an identity results in role confusion. Learn more about this theory in this article on Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development.
As further discussed in the book, Family: The Seat of Education, the home is the natural school for the child. Because it is the parents who brought their children to the world, it is the natural right and duty of the parents to provide their children with good education so that they may achieve the purpose for which they were created. The home is the best school and the parents are the best teacher for their children. Because of the necessity of education in the home, it is important that the parents realize how grave her obligation is, and not to neglect it or perform it with indifference. It is said that “the mother’s heart is the child’s schoolroom.” Napoleon is said to have exclaimed that: “The future destiny of the child is always the work of the mother.”
The Filipino Family: a spectrum of Views and Issues, Perez (1995) wrote that: The family is still the basic building-block of Philippine society. No less than the Constitution of the Republic has expressed this. The family provides the average Filipino with a stable reservoir of emotional security and support. Children are expected to seek parental advised and guidance on matters that deal with their future. If a child is born the eldest, he behaves and interacts with his parents and siblings in the capacity and not in any other way, insofar as son-parent and other older-younger sibling relationship are concerned.
According to Ms. Vicky Cantada (2002), a Center for Family Ministries (CeFam) counselor, the development of emotional quotient of children depends on how emotionally intelligent their parents oare. “You cannot teach a child to be emphatic if the mother or father themselves do not have empathy.” She also cited elements for good parenting: Focus Time and Effort. Children can easily pick up feelings and moods, whether they are of low or high intelligence and it depends upon the parents on how they will be able to become role models to their children. However, it does not follow that if a child has a high IQ she will have a high EQ or vice versa. There are other factors that lead to a child’s IQ and EQ.
Ms. Cantada discussed the five hallmarks of emotional intelligence and it consists of the responsibilities of the parents in instilling to their children the self-awareness, managing emotions, self-maturation empathy, and managing relationships.
Parents should be emotionally intelligent themselves, for them to teach how to become one to their children. For if not, the children will grow up as emotionally immature as their parents were.It emphasized the role of parents in the emotional growth of their children. Parenting styles thus, will come in clearly, as to how their styles will be effective in raising emotionally intelligent children.
In the book titled; “Sociology, Culture and Family Planning (A Conceptual, Experiential and Interactive Approach) by Wilfredo R. San Juan el al. in Chapter 21 of his book that humankind’s most basic and oldest social unit is the family.. It is a social institution primarily established by society to ensure its continuity and to regulate the sexual behavior of its members, since the infant is born helpless and dependent; the family has been socially constructed to insure that there will be adult members who will look after the infant’s biological and emotional nurturance and safety.
The family is the primary group where the child is initially socialized and initiated in the ways of life of his group. The family provides the child’s social, psychological, and emotional needs – warmth, intimacy, affection, nurturance, care and security. Thus, the family has been called the “then nursery of human nature.” Delicate and fragile as he is, so that he is better equipped with knowledge and adaptive skills before he is “transplanted” to the more or less inhospitable forces of the bigger society.
Mona Gonzales (1995) shared “Our words carry enormous power and in dealing with our children it is necessary that we separate what’s helpful from what’s harmful. Contrary to the maxim that a parent should always be consistent, especially in disciplining their child, they say it is all right to change your mind and live more in terms of your genuine feelings of the moment. Contrary to the belief that parents know what’s best for their children, it is all right to let a child make his own decisions however tedious the process may seem. For you are preparing him for future independence. Contrary to the notion that if a child expresses strong emotions, we must tone the down they say we can acknowledge his feelings and in that way give him strength and health. The disciplinarian feels nothing is wrong with telling a child he is a liar, dumb or lazy, if what he says is the truth.
This, they believe would help the child improve himself. But a child’s improvement is based on treating him as if he is already what he’s capable of becoming. Basically children are mirror images of us. Have you ever observed your three-year-old playing with her dolls? Chances are she imitates things you tell her and what you do for her. Treat your child rudely and with disrespect and she will grow up to be a spoiled brat- a smaller version of everything she picked up from you. Remember that there is such a thing as undisciplined discipline. But treat her with love and respect for her own humanity and individuality, and you will have contributed to this world a humane and strong person- a cathedral in a world of condominiums.”
Since parenting has no course or degree to get enrolled to or a clear enumeration of its effects, Mr. Jaie Ferrer (2000), pointed out in his article, that, parents use a variety of techniques when it come to dealing with their children. These diverse styles have varied effects on children. Despite the differences, the general rule is for the parent to strike a balance between discipline and openness. The combination of both parental control (how restrictive parents are of their children) and parental warmth (the amount of affection and encouragement parents show them) greatly affects a child’s personality-her social competence, concept of self, level of aggression and internalization of moral values.
In his book titled; “The Filipino Family by Medina T.G. According to Medina (2001), the family is a familiar topic but there is a need to step back & study it in critical & scientific lenses as personal experiences alone could be very limited & may not be representative of other families in the society. The family have certain characteristics: As a social group, it is universal. It is a significant element in man’s social life. Nowadays, changes in the family (e.g. from traditional structure to non-traditional structure as will be discussed later) are happening brought about by the changing economic climate & technological advancements but it has remained a basic institution.
It is the first social group to which an individual is exposed. Family relationships last along & an “individual’s earliest & longest experience in living takes place in a family setting.”
“The family affects the individual’s social values, disposition, & outlook in life. The family is thesource of the individual’s ideals, aspirations, & basic motivations.” The family is said to be the link between an individual & the larger society. In this way we can say that a person’s interaction &/or attitude inside the family unit affects or is a determinant in how that person interacts in the community that his family belongs.
Logically, from the assertion above, the family is understood to provide continuity of social life.It is a major agent in the transmission of culture which also affects &/or reflects the culture of the society especially the individual. LOCAL STUDIES
In the study titled; “Parenting Practices That Help Promote The Development Of Positive Social Behavior Among Preschool Children Wthin The family.” by an MA Psychologist Maria Perlita Embuscao De Leon of the College of Psychology of the University of the Philippines. The research used data from fifteen 2-parent families residing in a community located in Dalandan, Valenzuela City, with at least two children and one of whom is between the ages 3 to 6 years. There were also certain socialization patterns within the family system that may either promote or hamper the development of the social behaviors among the preschool children.
The particular focus of the research include from (1) to identify the behaviors which parents define as prosaically, to explore the parent’s perception about their roles, influences, and parenting practices in teaching social behavior to their preschool children, to discuss socialization patterns within the family that help promote the development of positive social behavior among preschool children and to determine ideas, options, and feelings of the preschool children in the manner by which they are being disciplined and taught positive social behaviors.
The research utilized a classic minuets no graphic approach which allowed for a 6-month home visit. Finally, face-to-face interviews were also conducted with the parents of those families. The finding of the research suggest that the local concept that is best related to social behaviot is “mabuting asal” which is also an umbrella term that covers not only prosocial attitudes, but also other positive social bahaviors such as having love of God, having integrity, being responsible, and studying well. The parents also believe that children are naturally naive, passive, forgetful, thus their primary role in developing prosocial bavior to their childrn is to teach them proper rules of behavior, to model to their young ones what proer behaviors are, and to remind them constantly of what to do and what not to do.
The findings further suggest that the microystem of the home, specifically the parent’s own influence to their childrn, is believed to be the environment which best promotes the development of positive social behavior among young children. There were also identified elements in the microsystem of the neighborhood which both facilitat and inhibit the development of proper social conduct. In the research titled “The Effect of Family size on Parenting Behavior and Child Development” by Rachel Ann Rosales Parr the study pointed concerns in investigating th relationship between the varialble family size or the numvber of the members of the family and the level of development of a child living in a local setting where the family incom is on or below the poverty treshold. The study looked into “parental bahavior” as a posssible moderating variable in the relationship between family size and child development.
This study shows that that a larger family could imply more children competing for parental time and resources (which are assumed to be scarce); thus adversely affecting the level of development of a child. Studies also exist suggesting a negative correlation between childrens’s intelligence are not necessary at-risk for developmenta set-backs.
In the study titled; “Family and Peer Influence on Adjustment among Chinese, Filipino and White Youth” by an associate Professor named Mayumi Anne Willgerodt. The study focused on the issue of the parent adolescent relationship. Little is known about the influence of parent-adolescent relationships and peer behavior on emotional distress and risky behaviors among Asian American adolescents; in particular, cross-cultural and longitudinal examinations are missing from the extant research.
The objective of the study is to test and compare a theoretic model examining the influence of family and peer factors on adolescent distress and risky behavior over time, using a nationally representative sample of Chinese, Filipino, and White adolescents. Data was utilized from Waves I (1994) and II (1995) of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health; the sample comprised 194 Chinese, 345 Filipino and 395 White adolescents and weighted to correct for design effects, yielding a nationally representative sample. Structural equation modeling was used to test the theoretic model for each ethnic group separately, followed by multiple group analyses.
The result of the study gained useful and quality informations. The measurement model was examined for each ethnic group, using both unweighted and weighted samples and were deemed equivalent across groups. Tests of the theoretic model by ethnicity revealed that for each group, family bonds have significant negative effects on emotional distress and risky behaviors. For Filipino and White youth, peer risky behaviors influenced risky behaviors. Multiple group analyses of the theoretic model indicated that the three ethnic groups did not differ significantly from one another.
Findings suggest that family bonds and peer behavior exert significant influences on psychological and behavioral outcomes in Asian American youth and that these influences appear to be similar with White adolescents. Future research should be directed towards incorporating variables known to contribute to the impact of distress and risky behaviors in model testing, and validating findings from this study.
In the study title, “Family Resilience and Filipino Immigrant families: Navigating the adolescence life-stage conducted by Jacqueline de Guzman, the study investigated the cultural family contexts of Filipino Immigrants families and their experiences of challenges related to adolescent development. The systems theory of family resiliency served as a framework to interpret how Filipino mothers experiences and navigated these challenges.
Using qualitative approach, 20 Filipino mothers of adolescents between the ages of 13-19 years were interviewed, investigating their experiences of challenges related to adolescent development and the strategies used to overcome these challenges. Discussions of these topics correspond with the systems of theory of family resilience. Overall, the implications of the study reinforce the usefulness of resilience-oriented paradigm to understand how immigrant families mobilize cultural resources during difficult challenges to foster family empowerment and strengthen family relations.
In the study on Rebecca Ann Branton of the Roehampton University titled “How old: Looking at young children’s development.”, This case study relates to academic literacy in the following ways understand the expectations and requirements of the study of childhood (including the need to recognize and apply different perspectives) recognize and articulate theoretical expectations, models and requirements and apply them to the study of childhood. Develop skills in critical listening, reading and analysis of text and data, the development of argument and the communication of text, data and analysis in written and spoken form develop the capacity for intellectual enquiry and critical autonomy which enables students to form their own views and locate themselves within the range of perspectives and practices encountered in the study of childhood.
This study tried to achieved the activities in which in doing this activity with students, this study is trying to achieve a number of things: To highlight students’ awareness of the parts played by social and cultural experiences, both for children’s development, and for the ways in which their own values and beliefs have been influenced by their cultural backgrounds and experiences.
To support students’ understanding that published guides to development, such as Sheridan (1997) can only give a broad indication, and may be unhelpful if, as Arnold (1999:34)* suggests, ‘There can be a tendency, when considering norms to see them as outcomes to be achieved’ and as judgements of a particular child. To highlight the idea that children’s development is not smooth or orderly, and each child does not make progress like climbing the rungs of a ladder. To support a view of young children as competent, skilful and very complex. To focus on what young children can do rather than on what they can’t. To support the first-hand experience element of the module, by encouraging students to focus on what they actually see rather than on norms of behaviour against which they map children’s achievements.
In a recent study of Kenneth G. Langone titled; “A Family Systems Perspective” of the Foreign Study from the School of Medicine of the New York University. This study is focused on family systems perspective which reflects a shift in our understanding of human behavior. This shift is from a search for a single cause or chain of causes within an individual resulting in a behavior, to understanding the behavior as having multiple causes. Behavior both shapes and is shaped by the context in which it occurs. Family therapists do see behavior as reflecting the individual child’s internal makeup, including genetic factors.
These are constantly influenced by the child’s experiences in the environment and the major systems or ecology, in which he lives, (for most children the family and school). But family therapists also see children’s behavior as influencing the way that the environment responds to them, in turn influencing the children’s response. Family systems therapists believe that these patterns of mutual influence can be repetitive from generation to generation and can generalize to different settings because people tend to re-enact family patterns.
Families influence their children’s development in many areas – their cognitive and academic skills, speech and language ability, behavior and social competence. Families also have an opportunity to help with the additional challenges faced by children with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Family-oriented therapy, whether used as the primary treatment or in combination with other treatments, such as medication, behavioral management programs, cognitive behavior therapy, educational assistance, and other modalities, has been successful in treating a range of emotional, behavioral, academic and psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Family therapy enables families to recognize how the entire family is impacted when a child has a problem.
By facilitating a climate of family support and education, family therapy helps family members understand interrelated problems, communicate more effectively with each other, and work cooperatively to generate strategies to help the child. In this issue of the NYU Child Study Center Letter, the authors describe a family systems perspective for understanding the interaction of mutual influences on sustaining family patterns, the contributions of nature and nurture in problem formation, and the ways in which family therapists work to engage the family as a team for problem solving.
In the study titled; “The psychosocial adjustment of maltreated children: Methodological limitations and guidelines for future research” by Vivian Shaw Lamphear, M.A. Several empirical studies on the impact of maltreatment on children’s psychosocial adjustment were recently reviewed in this journal .
Following a brief overview of the findings from that article, the present paper summarizes the methodological limitations of the studies reviewed and discusses guidelines for future research in this area. In order to advance knowledge of child maltreatment squeal, we suggest future studies should include the following: (1) precise operational definitions of maltreatment; (2) adequate verification of the absence of maltreatment in the control groups: (3) identification and control of maltreatment covariates; and (4) consideration of subjects’ age in group assignment. Future investigations should also employ more longitudinal research designs and give more attention to the treatment needs of the child.
The study “The impact of family and peer differentiation levels on adolescent psychosocial development and problematic behaviors” by Stephen M. Gavazzi PhD, Dawn E. Goettler MS, Scott P. Solomon MS, Patrick C. McKenry PhD examined the impact of family differentiation and peer differentiation levels on adolescent problematic behaviors and psychosocial maturity. Differentiation levels were assessed dyadic ally in both the family and peer systems. Results revealed family differentiation to be the sole predictor of adolescent problematic behavior.
Additional regression analysis indicated that peer differentiation was a significant predictor of psychosocial maturity, along with the significant impact of adolescent gender and age. Family X Peer interaction terms were not significant predictors of either adolescent personal adjustment variable. Results, which display both consistencies and variations with the findings of previous research, are discussed in terms of their clinical implications.
In the study titled; “Perceived family Interactions and Psychosocial Development of Family Members” by Olga Poljšak Škraban stated that differences between the parents’ and the adolescent daughters’ perception of family interactions (relating to important qualities of parenting and the family competence) in the period of childhood and adolescence, as well as their connectedness to the psychosocial development of family members (especially adolescent daughters). The research is based on Beavers’ (Beavers & Hampson, 1993) systems model of family functioning and Erikson’s (1980) theory of psychosocial development. The research included two-parent families of female adolescents.
The main findings of the research are that daughters and their parents perceive the interactions in the family system differently. The daughters’ evaluations were the lowest, i.e., the most critical. All family members experienced a drop in the quality of interaction during adolescence. In terms of perceiving family interaction, the families became clearly divided on the competence continuum into two groups. Correlations between the family’s competence and the level of the adolescents’ psychosocial development were significant, albeit not high, as were the correlations between the levels of psychosocial development of the parents and the adolescents. Keywords: perceived family interactions, parenting, family competence, psychosocial development, late adolescence.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN
The descriptive research method was used in this study, particularly the normative type survey. Descriptive research was used in this study. Descriptive research described the Effect of the Family System to the Psychosocial Development of the 4th years students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Laboratory High School. In this study, it involved the description, recording, analysis and interpretation of the data. This study focused on the present prevailing conditions of the program and its beneficiaries. As described by Estolas, descriptive research is one that describes or interprets “What is”. It reveals conditions and relationship that exist or do not exist, practices that prevail or do not prevail, beliefs or points of view or attitudes that held or are not held, processes that are going on or otherwise, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. Descriptive research attempts to interpret the present.
Estolas added that the purpose of these designs is to “describe” the status of the events, people or subjects as they exist. Descriptive research usually makes from type of contrast, comparison and sometimes, in carefully planned and orchestrated descriptive researches, cause and effect relationship may be established in some extent. Aquino also describes descriptive method of research as an organized attempt to analyze, interpret, and report the present status of a group. It also includes studies that seek present facts, acts, or condition or any phenomena.
The main respondents of the study entitled “The Effect of the Family Systems to the Psychosocial Development of the adolescents.” are 4th year students of the Laboratory High School Student of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Mabini Campus during the academic year 2012-2013. Sixty respondents will be chosen by the use of random sampling. POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE
As shown above, the total number of respondents was 75, with 35 Females and 35 Males.
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
Mabini Campus, Sta. Mesa, Manila
We, the third Year students of the Bachelor in Business Teacher Education Program of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines will be conducting our research entitled “The Effects of Family System to the Psychosocial Development of the Senior PUP-LHS SY 2012-2013”
We are requesting for your cooperation for the fulfillment of this study. Rest assured that all answers should be treated with confidentiality.
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES LABORATORY HIGH SCHOOL (PUPLHS) PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENT
INSTRUCTION: Rank each statement by checking the column according to the following:
5- ALWAYS 4-OFTEN 3-SOMETIMES 2-SELDOM 1-NEVER
(at all times) (frequently) (occasionally) (rarely) (in no means)
1. Are you close with your parents?
2. Do you spend your free time with your family?
3. Do you eat at the same time with your family?
4. Are you close with your siblings?
5. Do you have conversations during meal time with your family?
6. Does your family provide your major expenses?
7. Does your family allow you to go out with your friends
8. Does your family show concern about your problems?
9. Does your family provide rules about time limitations with your friends?
10. Does your family set rules regarding your studies at school?
11. Do you make decisions on your own?
12. Have you make decisions about your career on your own?
13. Do you consult your friends in decision making?
14. Do you ask the permission of your parents about your career in college?
15. Do you ask the view of your parent in terms of choosing your friends?
16. Do you spend more time with your friends rather than your family?
17. Do you want to spend more time at school rather than at home?
18. Do you discuss your problems with your family?
19. Do you consult your physical changes to your friends?
20. Do you spend leisure time with your friends? (hang-out, watch movies, play sports, malling,)
21. Do you spend lunch breaks with your friends?
22. Do you ask your friends for help in school works?
23. Do you share secrets with your friends?
24. Do you have conversation about school matters with your family?
25. Do you have conversation about personal and emotional matters with your friends?
26. Do spend academic group works with your friends?
27. Do you enter the same Academic Clubs with your friends?
28. Do you prefer the same type of clothing of you friends?
29. Do you hang out friends with the same gender?
30. Do have common traits with your friends?
31. Do you have the same language/dialect with your friends?
32. Does your being culturally aware equips you to reach out to the families of your friends?
33. Does understanding your own cultural identity helps you in establishing identity?
34. Do you hang-out with people who are from cultures that are different from yours?
35. Does your understanding of your own culture shapes your sense of who you are, as well as your place in home, school, and society?
36. Do you prefer spending time with girls?
37. Do you prefer spending time with boys?
38. Do you like fashion for teenage women?
39. Do you like doing household chores?
40. Are you interested in cosmetology?
41. Do you like playing sports?
42. Do you like playing online games? (Dota, RAN Online and the like)
43. Do you spend time chatting with your friends online?
44. Are you interested in men’s fashion clothing?
45. Are you interested in industrial arts? (Electricity, Wood working, Automotive, etc.)
46. Do you belong to a certain group? (Circle of friends, group organizations, community organizations, etc.)
47. Do you do the same thing what your groups are doing?
48. In decision making, do you consider your group/circle of friends?
49. Do you share your important secrets to your group?
50. Do you go to recreation areas with your friends?
Through the use of the questionnaire, the data were drawn from 60 number 4th year students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Laboratory High School. The researchers set an appointment with the students as to the date, time, and place of the survey. Each was asked to answer the list of questions. This research, in order to obtain the desired results in relation to the objective it aims to accomplish, employed the normative-survey method which standards in this study are established in determining quality data. The facts obtained were subjected for careful classification and thorough analysis and interpretations. The data for this research were collected using a survey questionnaire. The survey was created using suitable questions modified from related research and individual questions formed by the researcher. The survey was comprised of 55 questions, which were related to the variables studied.
The questionnaire was made with great care by the researcher and was drafted by the writers with the able assistance of their lead researcher who gave valuable help and suggestions for the quality of the survey. After the formulation of the questionnaire, the schedule and the distribution of the devise was acted upon. After the professor validated the questionnaire, these were distributed to the 4th year students of PUPLH – Manila.
The researchers understood that people’s consciousness may also affect their honesty and effectiveness in answering the survey, and so, the researchers gave people the option of being anonymous. Participants were given time to respond and then the researchers collected the surveys. In able for the researchers to secure reliable data and facts for the study from the respondents who could understand the questions, the researcher availed the schedule which is a set of questions asked and filled by the researchers in a face to face situation. In addition, the researcher guided the students who had difficulties in understanding the questionnaire in able for the fact and data recorded were pertinent in the development of the study After all of the required number of questionnaires was answered, the researchers tabulated the data according to their profiles. A tabulation sheet was then used in order for a more systematic and organized tabulation. STATISTICAL TREATMENT
After all of the desires respondents had finished answering the questionnaire made a tally of the total number of boy and girl included. The group used Stratified Random Sampling. In this sampling technique, the group got random samples in a population which was composed of several 4th year high school students in PUP Laboratory High school. From each of these sections, the sample size was drawn proportionately by 60 students.
The variables given and questions were computed to identify its rank through the number of questions given. The equation used in computing the rank of the variable is as follows:
In getting the sample size, the group used the Sloven’s formula which is, n= number of high school students in PUP Laboratory High school, N stands for the whole population of the 4th year High school students of PUP Laboratory High school who were enrolled in school year 2012-2013.