The five rights (5 Rs) need to be followed when administering any medications: right patient, right medication, right dose, right time and the right route. Venipuncture procedure for the purpose of establishing peripheral venous access and for obtaining blood sample for laboratory tests follow the standards of practice framework. It is mandatory that health care professionals have and sustain in good status, all licenses, permits, and certificates required by law as well as follow the standards of practice imposed.
(2) Explain the repercussions that could arise from violating these standards.
Violating these standards will lead to adverse patient reactions to the drug administered; worst case will be death to the patient involved. Investigations regarding the medication error will result to fines/penalties, license revocations and even jail time (Sen, et al, 2005). Sadly, accidental deaths due to medication errors as a result of failure to follow these standards are not unusual cases in health care practice (Medical Mistakes 1999).
(3) What are the responsibilities of a person in your health care position during a code arrest?
If signs of patient’s condition/ state is worsening rapidly (i.e. increased respiratory distress and decreased oxygen saturation, call a code. The person who found the unresponsive patient should call the code right away and initiate CPR. It is important to know the status code of the patient before anything else, whether the patient has a full code, partial code or has a DNR status (Do Not Resuscitate) (Turjanica, 1998).
(4) Discuss the repercussion that could arise, both for the patient and you, in regards to injection of contrast media.
Intravenous injection of contrast media will be done/ administered by a qualified physician or trained radiologic nurse. An informed consent will be obtained from the patient prior to the said procedure. This consent has to be signed by the patient, the guardian or patient’s power of attorney. Severe reactions to the procedure leading to cardiopulmonary arrest/ death are beyond the health care team’s capacity. As long as there were no mistakes when the procedure was done, there will be no repercussions. Emergency apparatus and pharmaceuticals are available for any emergencies that may arise during the after the procedure.
(5) Explain the organization of the information supplied in the Physicians Desk Reference (PDR).
PDR provides information regarding prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, herbal medications, health conditions, types of surgeries and even treatment options for a number of health issues. They also provide drug to drug interactions when one is taking a number of medications for different health problems.
(6) What are the benefits of physicians using PDAs in ordering prescriptions for their patients?
Physicians will gain advantage when using PDRs as it will provide and supply them with the latest medication/ drug products available, concise drug information and multi-drug interaction checker. Daily news updates are also available thru these PDRs.
(7) Compare the ratings of addictive drugs on the controlled drug standard. Give an example of each category.
Examples of addictive drugs are nicotine, heroines and cocaine. Controlled drugs are medications taken illegally when not being prescribed by physicians. Examples of these drugs are analgesics like Tylenol with Codeine, Oxycontin and Morphine. Presently, all these controlled drugs are addictive. Research is ongoing nowadays for the new compound ACV1 which is more powerful than Morphine but is not addictive at all (Good, 2002).
(8) What are some reasons the imaging professional should chart carefully? In which ways is charting accomplished?
Imaging professionals need to chart carefully and completely for legal purposes. Documentation on any health related procedures will be used in court if something happens to the patient. Reactions of patient after any procedure are also documented in patient care notes and on the occurrence form.
(9) Which examinations require charting and how is this done?
Any procedure pertaining to health care needs to be documented/ charted. As much as possible, the documentation needs to be clear and concise. It should also be reflecting the interventions done and the patient’s reaction/ responses to it. The type of contrast media, the amount given, the site and the time should be documented. The timing of events and the treatments/ interventions done in any emergencies during and after the procedure should be documented concisely as well. To time events, the use of one timepiece is necessary in order to establish consistencies.
Good, Brian (2002). Something for the pain. Men’s Health, 17.9, p 36.
Medical Mistakes. (1999). KRT Interactive Hot Topics.
Sen, S., Chini, E, Nunes, E & Brown, M. (2005). Complications after unintentional intra-arterial injection of drugs: risks, outcomes and management strategies. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Vol 80, 783.
Turjanica, M. A. Anatomy of a code; how do you feel at the start of a code blue? Nursing, Vol 27, p34.