Literature (from Latin litterae (plural); letter) is the art of written work. The word literature literally means “things made from letters”. Literature is commonly classified as having two major forms—fiction & non-fiction—and two major techniques—poetry and prose. Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), a category that may also include polemical works, biography, and reflective essays, or it may consist of texts based on imagination (such as fiction, poetry, or drama).
Literature written in poetry emphasizes the aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as sound, symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, ordinary meanings, while literature written in prose applies ordinary grammatical structure and the natural flow of speech. Literature can also be classified according to historical periods, genres, and political influences. While the concept of genre has broadened over the centuries, in general, a genre consists of artistic works that fall within a certain central theme; examples of genre include romance, mystery, crime, fantasy, erotica, and adventure, among others.
Types of Literature Here are some of the popular categories of books and stories in literature. An autobiography is the story of a person’s life written or told by that person. Bill Peet: An Autobiography A biography is the story of a person’s life written or told by another person. Eleanor, by Barbara Cooney A fable is a story that teaches a moral or a lesson. It often has animal characters. The Tortoise and the Hare Fantasy novels are often set in worlds much different from our own and usually include magic, sorcery and mythical creature.
The Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling A folktale is a story that has been passed down, usually orally, within a culture. It may be based on superstition and feature supernatural characters. Folktales include fairy tales, tall tales, trickster tales and other stories passed down over generations. Hansel and Gretel A legend is a story that has been handed down over generations and is believed to be based on history, though it typically mixes fact and fiction. The hero of a legend is usually a human. King Arthur and the Roundtable.
A myth is a traditional story that a particular culture or group once accepted as sacred and true. It may center on a god or supernatural being and explain how something came to be, such as lightning or music or the world itself. The Greek story of the Titan Prometheus bringing fire to humankind Science fiction stories examine how science and technology affect the world. The books often involve fantasy inventions that may be reality in the future. The Left Hand of Darkness, by Ursula Le Guin 1. Narrator| The person telling the story (not always the same person as the author or writer)| 2.
Setting| The place and time period in which the story takes place| 3. Characters| Protagonist – the main character; the “good guy”Antagonist – the one opposing the main character; the “bad guy”| 4. Plot| Plot Development:| Exposition – The situation at the beginning of the storyRising Action – Complications that occur after some sort of conflict is introducedClimax – The turning point in the storyResolution – The situation after the conflict is resolved| | Types of Conflict:|
Character vs Self (internal dilemmas, psychological issues, etc.)Character vs Character (personal enemies, villains, criminals, etc. )Character vs Society (governments, cultural traditions, etc. )Character vs Nature (weather, natural disasters, animals, etc. )Character vs Supernature (gods, ghosts, zombies, etc. )Character vs Machine (technology, artificial intelligence, etc. )Character vs Destiny (one’s fate, whether real or imagined)| 5. Theme| The main idea or lesson in the story|
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