The evil that afflicts Argentina is its size: the vast surrounding desert everywhere. To the south and north the wild-lurk the Indians prepared to attack at any time. This insecurity of life in the Argentine character prints some stoic resignation to violent death, explaining the indifference with which the giving and receiving of death. The inhabited part of the country can be divided into three faces: the dense forest (north), the jungle and the pampas. The Pampa is the image of the sea on earth, waiting to send her to produce. There are numerous navigable rivers republic, but dislikes the son of the Spanish navigation. Thus, the greatest gift to a people is a dead item, untapped. The fruitful is the only river Plate. Buenos Aires is called to be one day the gigantic city of the Americas. She alone is in contact with Europe and exploits the advantages of foreign trade.
This monopolistic position of Buenos Aires that although Rose does indeed had wanted to follow the federalism would have been impossible, and would have ended up with the system that holds today: the unit. (“We, however, wanted the unity of civilization and freedom, and the unit has given us into barbarism and slavery.”) As America is called to be a federation for its wide exposure to the Atlantic, Argentina is set to be unity. The city is the center of civilization Argentina Spanish, European, but the desert nearby.Man City live a civilized life. In the city are the laws, ideas, progress, education, regular government. The countryside and the city represent two separate companies, two people strangers to each other. The man’s campaign to the city hates and hates the educated man. Argentina shares many features with the Asian plains of the Tigris and Euphrates, and the lives of his men are often similar (Arabs and gauchos). Field:
Argentina dominated the campaign of brutal force, the authority without limits and responsibilities of charge. This is seen in the executions of the foreman, that do not support claim legitimate authority considered that it has killed. The people of the field consists of two races: Spanish and Indian (except in Buenos Aires, the black, leaning toward civilization and endowed with talent, is extinct). These races are known for their love of idleness and industrial disability. The American races, the Indians are unable to work hard, and the Spanish race shows the same trend. In the campaign the company disappears completely, only the family remains feudal isolation. Thus, any form of government becomes impossible, no municipality, scope and execution of judicial state violence monopolized. The population is scattered. No public response. Civilization is entirely unworkable and barbarism is normal.
Progress is stifled, because there can be no progress without permanent possession of the ground, not the city that unfolds is the man’s industrial capacity and allows you to extend your purchases. In the field of religion is distorted. What happens with religion than with the Spanish language is corrupted. It is a natural religion. The Gauchos are Spanish only by the confusing language and religious notions they possess. Home occupations, cottage industries, are exercised by the woman, she weighs nearly all the work. Education country man: children exercise their forces and are trained for pleasure in handling the bow and the balls and are riders. With puberty and adolescence are the complete independence and unemployment.
From childhood are used to kill cattle, which familiarizes them with bloodshed. The horse is an integral part of Argentine fields. Thus, children are gradually acquiring the characteristics of their ancestors: the habit of succeeding in the resistance, to challenge and overcome nature. This promotes a sense of individual importance and superiority in the field man. All Argentineans are aware of their worth as a nation, have some vanity. In conclusion, rural life has unfolded in the gaucho faculty, without stimulating the intellect.His moral character is supported by the habit of triumph over obstacles and nature.Strong, proud, energetic, has no instruction. He is happy in their poverty, because that’s all he knows. The gaucho is not working, food and clothing it is prepared at home, the one and the other was provided by their cattle.
Argentine originality and character. The crawler. The trail guide. The gaucho malo. The cantor.
The pastoral life is also his poetic side. For example, in the immensity Echeverría, in the wild, found in the solemn nature of the inspirations for his works, which were then greeted with approval in Europe. The Argentine people are by nature a poet and musician. In the middle are the storm, the omnipresent death, the endless pampas. The gaucho is in this sense, their popular poetry, naive and sloppy. Trivia: when Echeverria resided in the campaign, the gauchos around him with respect. Although it was for them a “pack”, respected him because he was a poet. The farming village has its own songs, including: the sad (the North) and vidalita (sung issues of the day and war songs). The guitar is the instrument par excellence.
Especially notable in the campaign:
The crawler, knows to follow the tracks of animals and men. It is a serious character, awareness of knowledge-a science that has popular home and gives him a certain dignity, quiet and mysterious. You can, by all accounts, follow tracks produced long ago. The trail guide, knows every inch of thousands of square miles of plains, forests and mountains. It is oriented based on the signs of nature. It is a surveyor. The map that the generals are, the fate of the army depends on it. It also announces the proximity of the enemy. Know the geographic distances and smaller. They say that General Rosas recognized by the taste of grass every room in the south of Buenos Aires. The bad gaucho: an outlaw is a misanthrope. Justice pursues, in the settlements name is pronounced with respect. Live in rural, isolated society that feeds on the hunt. It is a divorced man in society, outlawed by legislation, a savage white. Poets sing of their exploits around. However, the gaucho is not a bad villain, not a criminal. Their profession, their science is to steal horses. It has some honor, and credit his word. The singer: Same bard, minstrel of the Middle Ages.
It moves between the struggles of cities and the feudalism of the fields. The singer goes to pay in return, singing of the heroes of the pampas fugitives from justice, while mixing the story of his own exploits (often it is also being pursued by law). His poetry is dull, irregular, more sentimental narrative is filled with images of rural life. The singer does the same job of chronic, customs, history, biography, the bard of the Middle Ages. In Argentina are at the same time two different civilizations on the same ground, without consciousness of each other: that mimics a nascent naive and popular efforts in the Middle Ages, and the other trying to make the last results European civilization. In Argentina, XII and XIX century living together: the first campaign, the second in the cities.
Conclusion: reading this book the reader will find the characters typed above, and will reflect the country’s situation in the countryside, its customs and its organization. The bad gaucho Facundo. The singer: La Madrid. The trail guide: Artigas. Foreman carts, “The Herdsman” (warrior in the service of warlords).
Association. The store.
Here Sarmiento takes the first chapter and adds the following: In the field need to create a shell company to remedy the normal dissociation. In the shop give and receive news, there attend the parishioners of the surroundings, are armed horse racing, is the cantor. They are gambling and liquor. There fraternize. This accidental association of every day, on repeat, form a partnership, a public assembly without object, without social interest, probe begins to lie the roots of reputations. The gaucho esteem above all physical forces, the skill of horsemanship, and value. It is dedicated, for example, horse riding games. The gaucho knife goes armed, inherited from the Spanish. This is an instrument that serves for all occupations, can not live without it. Play the stabbing, he drew the knife and make your opponent hits him in the face, without killing him. The row is locked by reputation. He has no intention, in principle, to kill. Killing is a “disgrace.” Juan Manuel Rosas had made his home a kind of asylum for homicides (political paternalism).
In this society, then the culture of the spirit is impossible, there is no public good. The gaucho becomes criminal or leader, according to the direction things take. Authorities of the campaign to crack down on ruthless judges are needed even more heartless. These authorities (remember the foremen) are ideas in the people about the power of authority, which later leads to its effects. The judge is obeyed by his fearsome reputation for boldness, his justification is “so I’m in charge.” The field commander has more power than the judge and his features are even more terrible. To rule makes use of the men who inspire fear, and this is the dealings of weak governments. When Rose took over the city, wiped out all the commanders who had helped him to ascend, so that disputes the place of power that began to fill. These details given so far about life in the Argentine countryside, with its order, its distinctive partnership approach, have to explain social phenomena and the Argentine revolution that erupted in 1810.
Previous chapters are often taken in high school. To these must be added: a) Chapter I of the Second part (or chapter 5) on children Quiroga b) the ninth or 13 (Barranca Yaco).See below.
Revolution of 1810.
In all the nations of Latin character, object and purpose of revolutions for independence were the same, and born of the same breast: the movement of European ideas. Before the revolution in our country, there were books, ideas, law, education, was a base of organization, backward, feudal, monarchical, yes, but it existed. In the pastoral campaign, freedom, responsibility of power, developments involving the revolutionary movement was alien to their lifestyle. The revolution was useful to the field, both involved a new meeting place higher. Thus, the pastoral joined the agitation and revolutionary impulse. When people come into revolution, two competing interests fighting in principle, conservative and revolutionary, ie, realistic and patriotic. When a party wins, it is subdivided into moderate revolutionaries and visionaries. Then the defeated party was reorganized and succeeded by subdividing their rivals. When a revolution, one of the forces allied with the revolutionary cause, it follows immediately, forming a third entity, and indifferent to each other, this force is removed is heterogeneous. This was the movement led by Artigas.
The force holding Artigas in Gauteng is the holding current to the leaders in their provinces and that kept Facundo in the Llanos. Individualism is its essence, the horse his gun and his theater pampa. The montonera appears Artigas, and is parallel with the African hordes, presents a character of ferocity and spirit brutal terrorist. This is what Rose has become a system of laws applied to a cultured society. Rosas has not invented anything, his talent is plagiarizing their predecessors and make the brutal instincts of the ignorant masses, a coolly thoughtful and coordinated. The run with the butcher knife is an instinct that takes Rosas death to give the Gauchos forms, and to change the legal forms of other learned societies, which he calls America. The guerrilla band is a unique kind of war, which has its antecedent in the Asian peoples, and only in our country can be explained by examining the organization of society where applicable. Artigas was a trail guide, a leader of masses on horseback, an enemy of civil society and the city, still playing in the figure of Argentine leaders. The war of the revolution in Argentina has been twofold:
1: war of the cities, launched in European culture against the Spanish in order to give greater extension to that culture (patriots influenced by the ideas of independence versus European Spanish royalists). 2: War of the leaders from the cities to escape the civil subject and fight against civilization. (The War of the savages of the campaign led by the warlords and Roses embodied in European culture versus existing cities) First, the triumph over the Spanish cities (the monarchy), but secondly, the campaign is due to the cities. Here is explained the enigma of the revolution in Argentina. With the victory of the leaders of the campaign, all civil manner disappeared in the field and is on track to disappear into the cities. “… It is finally the central government, unitary, despotic landowner Juan Manuel de Rosas, who digs into the cultured Buenos Aires gaucho’s knife and destroy the work of centuries, civilization, laws and liberty.” (Excerpt from the end of Chapter III illustrates this idea).
But Buenos Aires is so powerful elements of European civilization that will eventually educate Rosas, and contain their bloodthirsty and barbaric instincts. In fact, some of their wild characteristics and have been moderating over time. There are four cities that have already been wiped out by the domains of warlords and Roses: Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, San Luis and La Rioja. All of them had in 1810 with a great economic prosperity, intellectual and cultural life. Produced eminent men, the lights were widespread. However, the process of barbarism has acted on them to bring them to ruin religious, educational, intellectual, economic and cultural. Sarmiento checks this done through an “interview” that holds a canon of La Rioja. San Juan (province Sarmiento) is headed for destruction: the educational level is very poor there, opposed to the high level it enjoyed before this process. Conclusion: ignorance and poverty expect the inner cities to give the last gasp devour their prey, to make field stay. Buenos Aires can be saved for European civilization is so strong there that the brutalities of the government can not be against it. “Why fight? We fight to return to the cities their own life. “
Chapter I (or Chapter 5 run number)
Children and youth of Juan Facundo Quiroga.
The chapter begins with this anecdote:
Between the cities of San Luis and San Juan there is a desert called “journey.”Facundo, forced St. Louis to escape the knife justice issues, was the need to go through it alone. At that time, a man-eater (cannibal) walked hanging around the crossing. While crossing, Facundo heard the roar of the tiger. He climbed up, then a small locust tree.The tiger tracked the gaucho there and began trying to hunt him. He stayed for two hours staring at his prey, his eyes reddened by the blood lust. The gaucho was looking reeling from the glass, fascinated by the look of the animal. His friends managed to get tracks without hope in time and captured the tiger, who then killed him Facundo. “Then I knew what I was afraid,” said Facundo on this story. He called him “El Tigre de los Llanos.” Phrenology has demonstrated the relationship between the appearance of men and animals who are similar in character.
Facundo Description: It was of short stature and stocky. In broad shoulders and short neck. His head was well formed, very thick hair cover, black and curly. His face was buried in a forest of hair, had a curly black beard that went up cheekbones sharp enough to discover a strong-willed and tough. His eyes caused terror were black, full of fire and was shaded by thick eyebrows.Facundo never looked head always bowed his head and looked out between the eyebrows, to be feared. His complexion was pale brown. The structure of the head revealed, under this cover jungle, the organization of men born to command. However, as he was born in a given society these characters had to manifest itself in a bloody, terrible and wicked.
Facundo was the son of a lowly San Juan, but had made some money with grazing. He went to school where he learned to read and write. In school he was arrogant, aloof and alone, just mingling with colleagues to lead acts of rebellion and to beat them. In the fables of childhood is the germ of the characteristic features of historical character. The memory of the people is full of stories of Quiroga. ‘I slapped his teacher because he hit him with a stick and ran to hide in a vineyard where he spent three days. This will be the leader who later challenge to the whole society. At puberty, kills his first victim: Jorge Peña. The first drop of blood stream that marked its path. – Worked as a laborer in Mendoza for a woman. Exerted influence over other pawns and interceded on their behalf with the patron. Therefore pawns called him “Father” (political paternalism).
At the end of one year called for his salary-sixty pesos, immediately went to a grocery store and played them all on one card, he lost. Leaving there, a judge ordered his book conchavo and left lying in a stabbing. Adult life spent hiding, hunted, playing, working as a laborer and distributing stabbing. -Travel to Buenos Aires and in 1810 he enlisted as a recruit in the militia of Ocampo.Then in the regiment of mounted grenadiers. However, military life involves discipline, order, and he was called to command, a rebel, I wanted to be created only in defiance of civilized society, a career combining bravery and crime, government, and disorganization. Defects and returns to the provinces, on the road kills a game. – Facundo returns to her parents. Like his father does not want to lend money, he sets fire to the roof. Father denounces this act and slaps him. But a year later make peace. Solve-enroll in the montonera Ramirez, scion of Artigas.
The governor of St. Louis makes it turn and sends him to jail. There were Spanish prisoners who had been defeated in Chile. These rise up and open the door to the common prisoners to help them in flight. Facundo there escapes killing many men with a male crickets. He claims to have killed fourteen people. -Later, Facundo quell the uprising succeeds and reconciled society. Facundo is the man of nature who has not learned to curb their passions is the nature of mankind in the pastoral countryside of Argentina. Facundo is primitive barbarism. In their actions show the man-beast, acts to produce terror in their environment. Gained prestige among the common people at the expense of patriotism and devotion meet with terror, using his cunning and credulity of the vulgar. Some thought even that he had supernatural powers. What I had was a certain superiority and knowledge of human nature and value of those means. The men close to Facundo said he had a strong dislike decent men who wanted to frighten rather than instill fear alone, he did understand the henchmen who was seer, who treated the men with whom he was connected as slaves, never had confessed, prayed and heard mass.
La Rioja. The field commander.
La Rioja is a city lonely, suburbs and withered. Los Llanos is a mountainous area, ravine, an oasis of green paste. The appearance of the province is desolate, the scorching weather, the dry land. La Rioja can be compared to Palestine in its geography and the patriarchal aspect of the peasantry. For example, the pawn must protect the life of his employer. Farmers living primitively barbaric preserving its purity and hostile to the cities. As in the Middle Ages, the city of La Rioja there is the struggle of two powerful families, noble: the Ocampo and Davila. After the success of San Luis, Facundo prestigious and recommended by the government occurs in the plains. Los Ocampo, who were in government, give the title field commander and sergeant major of the militia. Facundo, representing the pastoral element, barbarian, the third entity headed by Artigas, presented in La Rioja, called by one party in the city. Quiroga is a Trojan horse inside the city. While it’s field commander in Los Llanos, an uprising in San Juan, makes the northern provinces to quell worry. Facundo part of it and ignoring the strict orders he had, the focus falls on subversive and overcome them.
Thus, Quiroga shows no orders from anyone expected and announced its decision to pull down the government. Quiroga takes La Rioja, overthrowing the city. The leaves by Davila. However, it tries to conspire against him and capture him. Facundo defeat attempts and murders Araya, the captain who should seize him. The government, then, for the murder of intimate Araya. Quiroga decided to turn the civil war between the city and the plains, between him and the government. Send a group to the Board of Representatives to fulfill its mission: to declare deposed Davila. The other provinces decide to intervene to prevent the confrontation between the government and Facundo. Corvalan (the order of Roses, which appears in Amalia) is the mediator. Talk first with Facundo, who claims to accept peace. Then with Davila who abandons weapons. At that time, easily beating Quiroga government attacks.
Before killing him Davila, it opens a wound that Facundo, as a good gaucho, always hidden. After the defeat and murder of Davila, Facundo sends condolences to the widow pays tribute to the dead, showing some nobility. As Quiroga has never been in charge of organized government, appointed as governor of a vulgar Spanish. Thus, Facundo seizes his country, the government traditions disappear, the forms are degraded, since the relief, unemployment and neglect are the supreme values of the gaucho. Enrichment Quiroga: Half the cattle in the province belonged to him. His business was to supply the meat market, a monopoly, as no one dared to compete with him. In a business with foreign merchants, Facundo occurs in the home of a magnate of Buenos Aires with silk stockings, breeches mattress fabric and a poncho ruin. He wanted to humiliate the learned men and show their contempt for foreign men. None dared to laugh at this time. Facundo’s passion for the game embraced his public life. Took advantage of his power and fearlessness to take advantage. He played with unlimited funds. This destruction of civil order that Facundo achieved in La Rioja resulted in the migration of people to San Juan, the Plains are now deserts.
Sociability. Córdoba. Buenos Aires (1825).
Facundo La Rioja has absolute master. Since there are no lyrics, no opinions, and as no opinions, La Rioja is a war machine. State of the country’s major cities:
Cordoba is one of the most beautiful cities on the continent. Until 1829, the spirit of Cordoba is monastic and ecclesiastical. While the old University of Cordoba has a high level, is almost entirely circumscribed to theology. The spirit of Cordoba was by this time the Middle Ages. Cordoba has been the asylum of the Spanish, so the revolutionary ideas of 1810 were little basis in this province. in short, is a Spanish city by literary and religious education, stationary and hostile to innovation. Buenos Aires: the city is believed a continuation of Europe, its spirit and tendencies.Buenos Aires is a city full of revolutionaries. In just ten years is done here and europificación desespañolización. Buenos Aires is all new, all revolution and movement.Rivadavia, located in the government, brings Europe. Thus, the European influence on Buenos Aires motorized progress and builds the most important institutions of the state.
Rivadavia never shed blood, or destroyed property. Roses, however, is a butcher and has consumed the national treasury to support the war that he has on. A Rivadavia fits represented the glory of European civilization. Rivadavia and Rosas are the two extremes of Argentina, which binds to the wild on the pampas and Europe by the Rio de la Plata. Cordoba and Buenos Aires are the two prominent phases of the parties that divided the cities. They represent two parties: conservative and progressive. While feeding on Spain Cordoba, Buenos Aires makes it the most progressive ideas of Europe (Rousseau, Montesquieu). These parties concluded by federal and unitary called. But Argentina is geographically so constituted, that is to be united forever, even if the label of the bottle says otherwise.
The Federal party of the cities was a link that linked the party barbarian campaigns. That barbaric force was scattered throughout the republic, divided into provinces. A strong hand was needed to melt it and present it as a single whole. Quiroga was the one who lent his hand. Characteristics of the unit: the unit type worship the Constitution and individual rights. Its religion is coming from the Republic. It follows from one generation reasoning, deductive, enterprising. It has fine manners, gestures, cults, dresses European.
Trials. Actions Tala and Rincon.
In 1825, the Buenos Aires government invited the provinces to meet at a conference to shape a general government. Facundo received this invitation with enthusiasm (something positive Facundo). The first test facundo outside the terms of the province is the action of Tala. In it, his hordes are fighting with the army of General La Madrid. La Madrid was a great man of courage, many stories about his enormous courage around him. It was a kind of poet and harangued his troops with war songs. It is the singer of the first part (chapter II). La Madrid, eager to prepare troops for the war against Brazil overthrows the Tucumán authorities. Facundo decided to invade Tucumán by order of Government of Buenos Aires. The winner goes bad gaucho of combat and the Tala flies a flag: a black cloth with a skull and crossbones, the symbol of this spirit of strength pastor, Arabic, Tatar, which will destroy cities and their progress. The flag is red, red, just like you have the federal currency Rosas. The red color on the flag is opposed to Argentina and also to progress. The red is typical of the flags of the Wild: Asian, African and is the color of the chiefs, dictators, absolutism, the executioner of Artigas.
This is seen throughout history in many cases. Color is a proscribed by Christian and civilized societies, whose flags shout justice and peace, while the red screams violence, blood and barbarity. It is important to analyze this point because every civilization is expressed in suits and each suit shows a whole system of ideas. The motto appears red roses in 1820 by order of the tyrant, and since then, who does not carry the red tape stifles it, regardless if it is a great man, a girl or a child of a wealthy family. This imposes on terror, thanks to the inability to differentiate themselves and the government. This fear that governments control us barbarians is rooted in our blood is Spanish heritage, and they have suffered for centuries the power of the Inquisition. And overcome Madrid, Facundo opposes the government of Rivadavia. Facundo was not federal, was the field commander, the enemy of bad gaucho civil justice, of order, decent man, sage, coat, of the city. Its mission is to destroy all this, and that is why we oppose the government of Rivadavia. The government proposes to freedom of worship to attract European immigration and labor. Then, in Córdoba stands an inquisition.