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Factors Affecting the Grades of Freshmen Engineering Students Essay

INTRODUCTION

This chapter is the input section of the paper. It includes the background of the study, the statement of the problem, hypotheses of the study, theory base (technical framework), its significance, as well as the scope and the limitation of the study, and its definition of terms.

Background of the Study

Academic performance according to the Cambridge University Reporter (2003) is frequently defined in terms of examination performance. College grading is an exceptionally complex phenomenon because it is subject to both external social forces and internal changes of the participants (for example, students, faculty) policies and practices (for example, grading policies) and other factors (Birnbaum, 1977)Ecoamists view grades as a reward for academic performance, which is assumed to be related to individual academic ability as well as the quantity and effort the student puts forth in educational activites (Becker, 1965; Hanushek 1979)Psychologist suggest that motivation, self-effacy and other psychological variables all make differences inindividual achievement and grades (Bandura, 1994; Marsh and Roche, 2000; McKeachie and others, 1990)

Faculty members have the primary responsibility in assessing student academic performance and assigning grades to students. Faculty backgrounds appear to matter somewhat in assigning grades to students. adjunct faculty members tend to distributehigher grades than regular faculty. (Chen and Cheng, 1999;Sonner, 2000). Student academic ability and engagement in college are important determinants in academic performance. (Pascarella and Terenzini, 1991). There are many possible factors why the students able to get high or low grades. These factors are classified into four categories: student-related, teacher-related, environmental-related, and financial-related factors.

Their grades based on their works throughout the semester. This study is subjected to the Freshmen Engineering Students of the University of Southeastern Philippines. It attempts to determine the correlation of the perceived factors that may or may at affect the grades of the freshmen Engineering students. By conducting study, the result will provide exact information on what will be the effective ways to achieve and maintain ideal grades for the students to pass their course. The study will also provide what are the basic problems encountered by the freshmen Engineering students of University of Southeastern Philippines that affect their misbehavior. (repository, 2011)

Statement of the Problem

The study aims to determine the Perceived Factors Affecting the Grades of Freshmen of College of Engineering of the University of Southeastern Philippines S.Y. 2012 – 2013
More specifically, the study aimed to answer the following questions:
1. To what extent is the academic performance of the Freshmen Engineering students
Hypotheses of the Study
The following are the hypotheses of the study:

1.) Teacher-related factors:

1.1. There is a significant relationship between the modulation of voice of the teacher to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students. 1.2. There is a significant relationship between the teaching strategy of the teacher to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students. 1.3. There is a significant relationship between the mastery of the teacher’s subject matter to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students. 1.4. There is a significant relationship between the outputs given by the teacher to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students.

2.) Student-related factors:

2.1. There is a significant relationship between the students’ interest to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students. 2.2. There is a significant relationship between the students-professor relationship to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students. 2.3. There is a significant relationship between the student-parent relationship to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students. 2.4. There is a significant relationship between peer pressure to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students.

3.) Financial-related factors:

3.1. There is a significant relationship between financial assistance to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students. 3.2. There is a significant relationship between budget management to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students. 3.3. There is a significant relationship between the demand of needs or requirements to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students.

4.) Environmental-related factors:
4.1. There is a significant relationship between the schools’ ambiance to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students. 4.2. There is a significant relationship between the schools’ facilities to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students.

Theory Base

This study is primarily anchored on John Riley & Sons, Inc. which states that the factors mentioned that affects the grades of the College students are: Economic View, Faculty, Institution, and the students’ self-interest. College grading is an exceptionally complex phenomenon because it is subject to both external social forces and internal changes of the participants (for example, students, faculty) policies and practices (for example, grading policies) and other factors (Birnbaum, 1977)Ecoamists view grades as a reward for academic performance, which is assumed to be related to individual academic ability as well as the quantity and effort the student puts forth in educational activites (Becker, 1965; Hanushek 1979) Psychologist suggest that motivation, self-effacy and other psychological variables all make differences inindividual achievement and grades (Bandura, 1994; Marsh and Roche, 2000; McKeachie and others, 1990)

Faculty members have the primary responsibility in assessing student academic performance and assigning grades to students. Faculty backgrouds appear to matter somewhat in assigning grades to students. adjunct faculty members tend to distributehigher grades than regular faculty. (Chen and Cheng, 1999;Sonner, 2000). Institutional characteristics influence grading practices. Grades are not uniformly awarded across institutional types. Public institutions tend to award lower gradescompared with their private counterparts.

Students at different Carnegie-type institutions receive different grades. Students at doctoral universities tend toreceive the highest grades compared with students enrolled in other types of schools. (Kuh and Hu, 1999) This theory suggests that self-interest (students’ performance), faculty, institution, and financial-based factors could affect the grades of the students. This theory strongly supports the hypotheses of the study.

Conceptual Framework

Figure 1 shows the independent and dependent variables of the study. The study attempts to identify the relationship between the teacher-related, student-related, financial-related, and environmental-related factors to the grades of the freshmen Engineering students of the University of Southeastern Philippines.

Independent VariableDependent Variable
Teacher- related factors:
* Modulation of teacher’s voice.
* Classroom management.
* Teaching strategy.
* Mastery of the subject/subject matter.
* Outputs given to the students.
Student-related factors:
* Student-interest.
* Student-professor relationship.
* Student-parent relationship.
* Peer pressure.
Financial-related factors:
* Financial assistance.
* Budget management.
* Demand of needs or requirements.

Grades of the Engineering students of the University of Southeastern Philippines

Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Study
Variables of the study

The independent variables (IV) of the study are the following classification of factors: teacher-related, student-related, financial-related, and environmental-related factors. Thus these factors could or could at affect the dependent variable (DV) which is the grades of the Freshmen Engineering Students of the University of Southeastern Philippines.

Teacher-related factors. The modulation of the teacher’s voice, classroom management, teaching strategy, mastery of the subject or subject matter, and the outputs given by the teacher could or could at affect the grades of the freshmen Engineering students.

Student-Related factors. The students’ interest, student-professor relationship, student-parent relationship, and peer pressure could or could at affect the grades of the freshmen Engineering students.

Environmental-Related factors. The financial assistance given to the student, budget management, and the demand of needs or requirements could or could at affect the grades of the freshmen Engineering students.

Significance of the Study

The study was conducted mainly to provide information regarding The Perceived Factors Affecting the Failing Grades of Freshmen of College of Engineering of the University of Southeastern Philippines S.Y. 2012 – 2013.The feedback of this study would benefit the following: Teachers. This study informs the teachers to be aware for the cases of the students who’ve been involve in failing their subjects and help them motivate the students to listen properly during class hours and to fulfill their requirements given to them. Students.

This study encourage the students to be more responsible and more serious of their studies. Parents. This study helps the parents to be aware of their students’ needs in school. That includes their financial assistance and parental guidance to their students. Future researchers. This study would serve as a reference to their studies and could be counted as a reliable source. Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study focuses on the Perceived Factors Affecting the Failing Grades of Freshmen of College of Engineering of the University of Southeastern Philippines. Generated to a survey questionnaire is our primary data used which was also used in interview guide with the students. The respondents of the study were randomly picked ten (10) students of every section in the said department.

The study covers the first semester of the school year 2012-2013.

Definition of Terms

* Freshmen Engineering students. This refers to the participants of the study which are taking their college degree in the University of Southeastern Philppines, Barrio Obrero, Davao City. * Teacher-related factors. This refers to the factors in which the teacher is the one being subjected that could or could at affect the grades of the freshmen Engineering students of the University of Southeastern Philppines. In this study, the teacher-related factors are: modulation of teacher’s voice, classroom management, teaching strategy, mastery of the subject matter, and the outputs given to the students.

* Student-related factors. This refers to the factors in which the student is the one being subjected that could or could at affect the grades of the freshmen Engineering students of the University of Southeastern Philppines. In this study, the student-related factors are: students’ interest, student-professor relationship, student-parent relationship, and peer pressure.

* Environmental-related factors.This refers to the factors in which the environment is the one being subjected that could or could at affect the grades of the freshmen Engineering students of the University of Southeastern Philppines. In this study, the environmental-related factors are: school’s ambiance and the school’s facilities.

* Financial-related factors.This refers to the factors in which money is the one being subjected that could or could at affect the grades of the freshmen Engineering students of the University of Southeastern Philppines. In this study, the financial-related factors are: financial assistance, budget management, demand of needs or requirements.


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