2.1 Personal and social guidance
Personal and social guidance is needed by learners in order to cope with negative feelings; such as feeling inferior, rejected, lonely, hated, indecisive, inadequate or dislike for themselves. As well to transform them into positive feelings; such as having a good self-esteem, feeling loved, accepted, happy and confident. Educators and counsellors will use personal and social guidance to fulfil one of their principal responsibilities – to enable learner to develop a positive self-image. Personal guidance will also enable learners to deal with crisis such as changing schools, physical abuse, violence in the home or community or the death of a parent or sibling. A form of social guidance is the interaction of learners, with parents, educators, learners, siblings and other members of the community. These forms of interaction can provide social and emotional satisfaction but may also lead to behavioural problems, which need social guidance to address them.
Educational guidance includes all the facets of learning e.g. memorising work, how to learn for and write tests, i.e. everything relating to the learners schoolwork. With regards to learners finding difficulty with schoolwork, educators must identify the issue, deal with it and find solutions for it. Study methods, learner’s motivation to learn, academic assistance and reinforcement of academic work, as well as unrealistic expectations of educators and/or parents can all be addressed through educational guidance. Problems with education don’t happen in isolation, therefore educational assistance should take all other aspects e.g. the person himself or herself, the home, peers, school and community into account.
This facet of guidance involves viewing the learner as an individual and guiding them to make a realistic career choice. It is important for the learner to become familiar with the concept of “the workplace”, therefore career education should begin at primary school with emphasis on exploring work opportunities, instead of on specific selection of work. Learners should be introduced to various careers in pre-primary school, by means of different themes and by visits to a hospital, doctor, dentist, farm, fire station, etc.
2.2 Firstly I would use an exploratory interview to assist Nomsa as she is only in grade 2 and this interview is particularly used for learners who are very young. I, the counsellor, would be able to find out, through deliberation, who Nomsa is, as well as find out the nature and scope of her problem by means of the exploratory interview. Secondly, I would use the historicity interview in order to get a better understanding of Nomsa. This interview would give me an indication of her personal development thus far and would also allow me to see her views about her education and school experience.
I would then carry out an informative interview with Nomsa and her parents and by doing so I will capture data on Nomsa’s personality structure and education, which in turn can be processed by her parents and educators in the view to support her. Lastly, I would use the advisory interview to set Nomsa’s parents on their way toward more efficient guidance of their child. By carrying out this interview, I will be able to provide Nomsa’s parents with moral support, advice and help and will be able to give them informed suggestions on how to improve her educational situation.
An understanding of sensing will equip the teacher to offer educational guidance for the young child/learner as the teacher will be aware of the fact that sensing is essentially the moment of all learning. The teacher will also know that learners become aware of things through their five senses and he/she can therefore use this knowledge when planning activities for his/her learners. Furthermore it will be evident to the teacher that learners will not become involved in learning activities unless sensing is adequately actualised and the teacher will then be able to realise that sensing plays a vital role in learning.
2.3.2 Paying attention:
An understanding of the learning mode, “paying attention”, will equip the teacher to offer educational guidance for the young child/learner as the teacher will understand that it is through the senses that learners become involved in the learning process but that it is however imperative for learners to stay involved in the learning content. This involvement is determined by the learners willingness, which in turn sets in motion learning activities such as thinking, perceiving, fantasising , imagining and memorising.
Perception is a precondition for learning and is dependant upon the senses. The teacher will therefore know that it is through the perception process that the learner will identify the learning content. The teacher will also be aware of the fact that language development and perceiving are closely interwoven; therefore the language used is the medium of stating what is perceived.
The understanding of the concept of thinking will equip the teacher to offer educational guidance for the young learner as it will be evident to the teacher that the thinking constitutes to problem solving, the teacher will also be aware of the fact that emphasis must be placed on analysing, planning, reasoning, synthesising and arranging of learning content. The teacher will also know that there are two types of thought development – reproductive thought, which plays an important role in the recall of existing memory; and productive thought which leads to the forming of new concepts.
Papalia, DE & Olds, SW. 1978. Human development. Toronto: McGraw-Hill.