There are many experts who give the definition of reading. One of them is Aebersold and Field. They say: “… , reading is what happens when people look at a text and assign meaning to the written symbols in that text, further, the text and the reader are the two physical entities necessary for the reading process to begin (1997: 15). ” It means that when someone sees written symbols in a text, there will be something visualized on the reader’s mind. This process is called reading. Another expert, Williams (1999: 2) states that reading is a process whereby one looks at and understands what has been written.
In line with Williams, Heilman (1961: 8) says that reading is a process of getting meaning from printed word symbols. It is not merely a process of making conventionalized noises associated with these symbols. In line with them, De Boer and Dallmann (1982: 23) say that reading is a process involving meaningful reaction to printed symbols. Wallace, in his book entitled “Reading” adds that reading is interpreting which means reacting to a written text as a piece of communication (1996: 4). These four definitions have the same point.
The point is that reading is a process of getting the meaning of written text and giving reaction of it as the form of communication between the reader and the writer. Different from some experts above, Davies defines reading from the other point of view. He says that reading is a private. It is a mental or cognitive process which involves a reader in trying to follow and respond to a message from a writer, who is in distant space and time (1995: 1). It means that reading activity connects the reader and the writer although they live in different places and life in different period.
Reading is a mental cognitive process, so as the result of this activity the reader is able to give responses about the text’s message. Because reading is a private activity, the process of reading and responding is not directly observable. Most events told in written texts are past experiences; either it is the writer’s experiences or the others’. The success of reading activity is depending on the reader’s ability to visualize it in order to be able to understand and interpret its meaning.
Dealing with this fact, Kennedy says: Reading is ability of an individual to recognize a visual form associate the form with a sound and/or meaning acquired in the past, and on the basis of past experience, understand and interpret its meaning (1981: 5). Another expert, Grellet (1981: 7), defines reading as a constant process of guessing, and what one brings to the text is often more important than what one finds in it. It means that before the reader reads the text, he guessed the content of the text and he had already had his own concept.
After he reads the text, the reader relates his own concept with the text’s message. Based on some definitions above, it can be concluded that reading is the process of bringing a concept to the text and relating it with the meaning got from the text, in which it is usually a past experience, visualizing it, understanding it, and giving responses as interpretation of this process. Kennedy (1981: 188) says that comprehension is the ability of one to find, interpret, and use ideas.
Then, in Oxford Advanced Learner’s dictionary, comprehension is defined as a power to understand something (Hornby, 1995: 235). According to these two definitions, it can be said that comprehension is the ability to understand something through finding interpreting, and using ideas. In line with the statement above, it can be concluded that reading comprehension is the ability to get the meaning of written symbols, visualize it, and give responses as the interpretation of this process. Narrative text There are some approaches in teaching reading; one of them is genre based approach.
According to Hartono (2005:4) the term “genre” is used to refer to particular text-types, not to traditional varieties of literature. It means that genre is a type or kind of text, defined in terms of its social purposes; also the level of context dealing with social purposes. Based on the communicative purpose, Pardiyono (2007:93-98) classifies the text into eleven types, they are; description, recount, narration, procedure, explanation, discussion, exposition, news item, report, anecdote, and review. However in this study, the text will be focused on the narrative text.
Considering the social function, generic structure, and language features of narrative text, narrative text can be defined as a text which tells about past activities or event which concerns on the problematic experience and resolution in order to amuse and even give the moral messages to the reader. The explanation about social function, generic structure, and language features of narrative text is as follow: 1. Social function The social function of a text is quite similar with the purpose of the text.
Related to narrative text, the social function is to amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or various experience in different ways. 2. Generic structure The generic structure of narrative text consits of three parts, those are orientation, complication, resolution, and sometimes completed by coda. The further explanation about these parts of narrative text is as follow: a. Orientation Orientation is the introduction of the text. It includes what is inside the text, what the text talks in general, who involves in the text, when and where it happen. b. Complication.
In complication, the text talks about what happens with the participants. It explores the conflict among the participants. Complication is the main element of narrative. Without complication, the text is not narrative. The conflict can be shown as natural, social or psychological conflict. c. Resolution Resolution is the end of narrative text. This is the phase where the participants solve the problem aroused by the conflict. It is not matter whether the participants succeed or fail.
The point is the conflict becomes ended. 3. Language features According to Hartono (2005:7), the language features used in narrative text are: a. Focus on specific participants b. Use of past tense c. Use of temporal conjunction d. Use of material (or action) processes Video as Media in Teaching 1. Media a. The Definition of Media Etymologically, the word “media” comes from Latin language “medius”.
Literally, it means mediator or companion. Media is the messages mediator or companion from the sender to the receiver (Arsyad, 2005:3) Association for education and communication technology (AECT) in Sadiman (2002:6) defines media as all forms and lines which are used by people to convey information.
According to Gagne, media is many kinds of components in students’ environment that can stimulate them to study (Sadiman dkk, 2002:6). Based on those definitions above, it can be concluded that media are all things that can be used to deliver the message from sender to receiver so it can stimulate the mind, feeling, attention, and students’ interest in order to attain the teaching and learning process. b. Kinds of Media Media can be classified into three categories: visual, audio, and audio visual. (http://edu-articles. com) 1) Visual media.
There are two kinds of visual media; those are unprojected media and projected media. a) Unprojected media Unprojected media can be divided into: (1) Realia or real thing. The object must not be presented in class, but students should be able to see and observe them. For example the students observe the ecosystem, plant, the diversity of living thing, et cetera. This media is able to give real experiences to the students. (2) Model. Model is the imitation of real thing presented in three dimension form as substitution of the real thing.
This media helps the teacher to present the object that cannot be brought into the class, for example digestion system, respiration system, excretion system, et cetera. (3) Graphic. The functions of graphic are to catch the students’ attention, clarify the lesson, and illustrate the fact or forgettable concept. There are many kinds of graphic, such as picture, sketch, scheme, chart, and graph. b) Projected media There are two types of projected media: (1) Transparency of OHP. This is stated as the real media because the teacher must not change the lay out of the class and still able to face the students.
Transparency media includes software (OHT) and hardware (OHP). (2) Bordered film or slide. This is a transparent film that usually has measurement of 35mms and border 2×2 inches. The use of this media is the same as OHP, but the visualization of this media is better than OHP. 2) Audio media There are two kinds of audio media that are commonly used: a) Radio. Radio is electronic tool that can be used to listen to the news, new important events, life problems, et cetera. b) Audio cassette.
This tool is cheaper than the other because the supplying and the treatment cost are relatively cheap. 3) Audio visual media There are many kinds of audio visual tool: a) Video. This is one kind of audio visual media, besides film. In learning process, this tool is usually presented in the form of VCD. b) Computer. This tool has all the benefit of the other media. Computer is able to show text, picture, sound and picture, and can also be used interactively. Even, computer can be connected to internet to browse the unlimited learning sources.
c. The Characteristics of Education Media Gerlach and Ely in Arsyad (2005: 12-14) propose three characteristics of education media; those are fixative property, manipulative property, and distributive property. 1) Fixative property This characteristic explains the ability of media to record, save, continue, and reconstruct an event or object. The event or object can be put in the right order and rearranged using media such as photograph, video tape, audio tape, computer disc, and film.
By this characteristic, an event that just once in a life time can be perpetuated and rearranged for education 2) Manipulative property This characteristic enables an event to be transformed, so the event that needs long time can be shorted in order to be showed in class, for example the process of metamorphosis, the record of motion in sport class, the plant treatment, et cetera. 3) Distributive property This kind of characteristics enables an object or event to be transported through space and be served together in a number of students, in which each other get the same experiences.
Once information was recorded, it can be reproduced for many times and be together in many different places. d. The Importance of Media in Teaching The importance of media can be seen from its roles and functions in education. As stated by Prawiradilaga and Siregar, media have two main roles, those are: media as AVA (audio visual aids) so it can give the students concrete experiences and media as communication so it can connect the students as receivers with the material in order that it can be received well (2004: 6).
In the next pages, Prawiradilaga and Siregar (2004:8-13) explain the detail functions of media are: 1) Give the knowledge about the learning goals 2) Motivate the students 3) Present the information 4) Stimulate the discussion 5) Lead the students’ activities 6) Do the exercises and quizzes 7) Strength the learning process 8) Give the simulation experiences Meanwhile, Encyclopedia of Educational Research in Arsyad (2005: 25) elaborates the functions of media in teaching as follow: 1) Put on the concrete basics to think, so it decreases the verbalism 2) Improve the students’ attention.
3) Put on the important basics for the development of study, so it makes the lesson more steady 4) Give real experiences for the students so they can effort by them self 5) Emerge the regular and continued thinking, especially about life pictures 6) Help the emerge of understanding that can help the students’ language development 7) Give experiences that cannot be achieved by the other way and give the efficiency and variety in the way of study Besides, Nugraha adds the importance of media (http://yudinugraha. co. cc ), such as: 1) The presentation of the material becomes more standard.
2) The arrangement of the media that is structured and planned well helps the teacher teaches in the same quality and quantity for all classes. 3) The learning process is more interesting and interacting. 4) The students are more active. 5) It is efficient in using time. 6) The learning quality of the students can be improved. 7) Et cetera. e. The Ways in Choosing Media in Teaching Sudirman (1991) in Nugraha (http://yudinugraha. co. cc ) proposes three principles of choosing media in teaching as follow: 1) The goal of choosing media. The choosing of the media that will be used should be based on the goal of its choosing.
2) The characteristic of media. Each media has its own characteristic so it should be adjusted with the material. 3) Alternative choices. Choosing media is the process of making decision and many of alternative choices. Besides the principles above, according to Aristo, the factors that should be taken into account in choosing media are (http://aristorahadi. wordpress. com): 1) Objectivity. A teacher should be objective. It means that a teacher cannot choose the media based own his own. 2) Learning program. The media that will be used should be suited with the level of the students.
3) Technical quality. Technically, the media used should be checked whether it is filling the requirement or not. 4) The effectiveness. Are the media can help the students achieve the learning goal? 5) Time. How long time is needed to prepare and present this media? 6) Cost. The cost that should be paid to present this media must be adjusted with the budget. 7) Availability. The easiness of finding this media should be considered too. If the media we look for are not available, we can substitute it with other media that are suitable. 2. Narrative Video a.
The Definition of Narrative Video Video is one of media used to convey the learning’s message. In Oxford Learner’s Dictionary, video is defined as type of magnetic tape used for recording moving pictures and sound (1995: 1327). It means that video has two elements, those are audio and visual. The audio enables the students to receive the message using their hearing and the visual enables the students to receive the message using their eyesight. According to Sadiman (2002: 76), the message presented in the video can be a fact or fictitious, can be informative, educative, or instructive.
It is informative, it means that much information from many experts in this world can be recorded in video tape, so it can be received by the students everywhere they are. Video is also educative and instructive; it means that the message of the video can give concrete experiences to the students, so they can apply it in their daily life. Related to narrative, narrative can be defined based on its social function, generic structure, and language feature as a text which says the past activities or event which concerns on the problematic experience and resolution in order to amuse and even give the moral messages to the reader.
Considering the definition above, narrative video can be describe as a certain kind of magnetic tape used for recording moving pictures and sound about past activities or event which concerns on the problematic experience and resolution in order to amuse and even give the moral messages to the reader. b. The Benefit of Using Narrative Video in Teaching Generally, the benefit of using narrative video in teaching is quite the same as the benefit of using other videos in teaching.
According to Sadiman dkk, (2002:76-77) video has some benefits, those are: 1) It can catch the students’ attention easily. 2) Much information from many experts in this world can be recorded in video tape, so it can be received by the students everywhere they are. 3) The difficult demonstration can be prepared before, so the teacher is able to concern on his presentation. 4) It is more efficient in using time. 5) It can present dangerous object that cannot be brought into the class. 6) The volume can be adjusted. 7) The picture can be frozen so it can be inserted the teacher’s comment.
8) The light of the room does not need to be turn off. c. The Purposes of the Use of Narrative Video in Teaching Anderson (1994: 104-105) proposes some purposes of the use of video in teaching. These purposes are divided into three aspect, for cognitive aspect, for psychomotor aspect, and for affective aspect. These purposes are the same with the purposes of narrative video in teaching, those are: 1) For cognitive aspect a) Develop the recall and motion skill. For example, the observation about relative speed and a moving object.
b) Able to show a series of motionless pictures, without sound, as photo or bordered film c) Able to give knowledge about certain laws and principles d) Able to show the right way in having attitude in a performance, especially about the students’ interaction 2) For psychomotor aspect a) Able to show the skill about motion well because it can speed up or down so the motion can be observed clearly. b) The students get the feedback directly and visually about a motion so they can repair their motion well. 3) For affective aspect Video can be a good media to influence the attitude and emotion.
For example, play a short story that is suitable with the topic. BIBLIOGRAPHY Aebersold, Jo ann and Mary Lee Field. 1997. From Reader to Reading Teacher. USA: Cambridge University Press Anderson, Ronald. 1987. Pemilihan dan Pengembangan Media dalam Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Rajawali Press Arsyad, Azhar. 2005. Media Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada Brown, H. Douglas. 1994. Priciples of Language Learning and Teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Burns, Anne. 1999. Collaborative Action Research for English Language Teachers. New York: Cambridge University Press. Dallman, Martha, Roger L.R. , Lynette Y. C. C. , John J. D. 1982. Reading .
New York: CBS College Publishing Davies, Florence. 1995. Introducing Reading. England: Penguin Book Elliot, et al… 1999. Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning. Boston: Mc GrawHill. Grellet, Francoise. 1981. Developing Reading Skills: A Practical guide to Reading Comprehension Exercises. New York: Cambridge University Press Furchan, Arief. 1982. Pengantar Penelitian dalam Pendidikan. Surabaya: Usaha Nasional. Harmer, Jeremy. 1998. How To Teach English. Harlow: Longman Hartono, Rudi. 2005. Genre of Texts.
Semarang: Semarang State University Heilman, Arthur W. 1961. Principles and Practices of Teaching Reading. Columbus: Charles E Merrill Books Inc. Hopkins, David. 1985. A Teacher’s Guide to Classroom Research. Philadelphia: Open University Press. Hornby, A. S. 1995. Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press Kartono, Kartini. 1983. Pengantar Metodologi Riset Sosial. Bandung: Penerbit Mandar Maju. Kennedy, Eddie C. 1981. Methods of Teaching Developmental Reading. USA: FE Peackock Publisher Inc. Nugraha, Yudi. _____. Media Pembelajaran dalam Pendidikan. Available at http://yudinugraha.
co. cc Nunan, David. 1992. Research Method in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press. Pardiyono. 2007. Pasti Bisa! Teaching Genre-Based Writing. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset. Prawiradilaga, Dewi Salma dan Eveline Siregar. 2004. Mozaik Technology Pendidikan. Jakarta: Prenada Media Rahadi, Aristo. 2008. Bagaimana Memilih Media Pembelajaran. Available at http://aristorahadi. wordpress. com Sadiman, Arif S. Dkk. 2002. Media Pendidikan. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Perkasa Wallace, Catherine. 1996. Reading. New york: Oxford University Press Williams, Eddie. 1999. Reading in the Language Classroom.
London: Pheonix FLT Zainul, Asmawi and Noehl Nasoetion. 1997. Program Pengembangan Keterampilan Teknik Intruksional (pekerti) Untuk Dosen Muda. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka Jakarta Press. Zuber, Ortrun and Skerritt. 1996. New Directions in Action Research. London: Falmer Press. www. smanbanyumas. sch. id www. youtube. com IMPROVING STUDENT’S READING COMPREHENSION ON NARRATIVE TEXT USING NARRATIVE VIDEO (An Action Research at Tenth Grader of SMA Negeri Banyumas in Academic Year of 2010/2011) PRI WAHYUDI HERMAWAN K2208043 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY 2010.
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