The functionalist approach in regard to health and ill health came from Talcott Parsons. Talcott Parsons urged that people must be health for the society to function well. He continued to verify that illness is a form of unaccepted behaviour and people who are ill play the sick role. Moreover, his approach towards these members is that the state comes with responsibilities. The rights that are related with the sick role include; People expect to be excluded from normal roles for that period of time. or duties e. g. work, house chores and also to be nurtured. The family play an important role in caring for the sick person.
Responsibility of the sick role is; the sick person has to take good care of wellbeing in order to recover and return to normal duties. The functionalist contrast with the with government views regarding illness, that the society will be ineffective with sick people. Major strategies must be considered for the society to function. The Marxist approach: Concerning health, illness and health and social care services that are offered, the Marxist conform that this is an advantage to those in the high class. The government continue to allow advertisement of products that cause ill health and junk food.
Moreover, factories manufacture dangerous products and cars cause air pollution. The functionalist view ill health as something that happen any time, whereas theorists say ill heath is a result of differences in the society. For example in areas of poverty there is high rate of unemployment. The government play a small role to eradicate issues that are associated with illness. Therefore people who are privileged benefit in the society. The Interactionist or social action approach: The interactionist approach is focused on the steps that an individual say about the illness, whether the illness existed or not.
There are people who are seriously and do not consider themselves to be ill. There can be consequences to the sick person of being labelled ill. The interationists do not consider structures and institutions. However, they look on difficult relationships between people. Family, friends and professionals influence the individual’s declaration of being ill. The interactionist was criticised of leaving the causes of illness and focus on relationships and negotiations that occur. The approach ignores medical reports and environmental factors like depression, poverty and pollution.
Concept of health Health is the state when there is no disease. Parson explained health which was proposed by the Who in 1974, as the condition of being physically, intellectual and spiritually fit. The absence of disease received negative report that gives no attention to individual’s physical, emotional and intellectual health. Car providers apply the holistic approach to care and support heath care users. Health care providers view themselves to deal with needs of patients instead of recognised matters.
Three strands that were identified by Blaxter are; positive – when a person is fit and well: negative – health is being without pain or discomfort and functional – health is the ability to carry out daily tasks. Models of health Biomedical model The biomedical model originated from Western countries, the model supports the National Health Services. Health is considered as disease not found and professional help is required. The aim of professionals is to treat illness and the model so not focus on patients. Sociologists say look less on environmental factors that may cause ill health.
The biomedical model focuses on the ill person instead of environmental and social factors. The biomedical model relates with the functionalist perspective. The functionalist perspectives say that illness cause the society be ineffective. The sick role has responsibilities to cooperate with the medical doctors. The socio-medical model The socio-medical model of health pays attention on environmental and social factors that lead to health in in the community. Researchers obtained information that life expectancy has increased and death rate is falling.
The National Health Services provide free medical services. The report support that social factors cause ill health. The socio-medical model fits with the conflict theorists. Conflict theorists identified that there is lower life expectancy and increasing rates of illness people with low income and areas of poverty. Less privileged people have a poor diet and they live in areas where there is pollution. Although politicians identify plans to help people with illness they do not want to contribute. Biomedical model look on diagnosis, whereas the socio-medical focus on environmental factors that cause illness.