a. Evolution by Natural Selection: This theory is developed by Charles Darwin as one of the parts of his theory of evolution. This theory embodies the thought that species change and evolve over generations and that the mechanisms for the species change along with it. b. Inheritance: This theory, introduced by Gregor Mendel, embodies the principle that traits are passed on from one generation to the next through the genes that carry them. This means that traits are inherited from the parents to the offspring through these hereditary factors.
c. Cells: The Cell theory from Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, discussed that all cells come from preexisting cells and that cells are the basic elements for life to exist. d. Biological Classification: Carolus Linnaeus began the classification of different species according to their similarities and differences called nomenclature. e. Bioenergetics: is based on the concept that there is an energy that powers life and that it follows the rules of the energies that exist in the inanimate world. f.
Homeostasis: Claude Bernard discovered that organisms function best under a narrow range of conditions and that they maintain internal conditions to maintain stability, which allows them to live in a larger range of environments. g. Ecosystems: This deals with the concept that organisms don’t exist alone but is part of a community of other living organisms that interact with one another. (“What is Biology? ”) In relation to the news today and the theories’ applications in the 21st century, a test connected with the Inheritance theory recently revealed that genetics may determine the extent we are influenced by social drinking clues.
The article states that a specific form of the Dopamine D4 receptor gene may make people more sensitive to craving caused by alcohol-related cues from other people. This, the article reports, “…may increase the risk for extensive alcohol use or abuse when spending time with heavy-drinking peers (Association for Psychological Science, 25 July 2010). 2. Scientific Method The website began with the question “Have you ever noticed if you place a plant near a window, that after a while, the plant grows or leans toward the window?
” and was followed by the question “Have you ever wondered why the plant grows toward the window? ” This required a hypothesis formulation in order for there to be a guide on how to arrive on the answer. The hypothesis that I have chosen for the experiment on the website was that “plants respond to the light which they need to make their food. ” After selecting my hypothesis, I chose to “grow three plants with light to the left and glass to the right and three more with light to the right and glass to the left” and look for the difference in the “direction the plant is growing/leaning.
” The result was that “The leaves of the plants with the light on the left turned toward the left and the tops of the plants grew toward the left. The leaves of the plants with the light on the right turned toward the right and the tops grew toward the right. ” This supported my hypothesis that light was the reason that the plants grew toward the windows where the light was. In the scientific method, the whole process began with observation and questioning the behavior of the plant as it grew toward the window and analyzing the possible variables that may affect this behavior.
Considering that I had a basic idea about how plants grow, I made a hypothesis that was likely the case, though there may be some other variables that influence the behavior. These other variables made me think of testing them along with the main reason I had been thinking about. In order to test all the elements involved, I proceeded testing with both the light and the glass. Putting all the variables in not only confirms one or more of the variables, but also eliminates other variables that might not have any weight on the observations made.
With the results supporting the hypothesis, and eliminating other non-weight bearing variables (in this case, the glass), then the hypothesis is accepted. The explanation in this case would be that plants respond to the light that enables them to create their own food. From here, it is possible to have other questions that would lead to the repeat in the cycle of the scientific method back to observations and questions. These questions could include how plants would react when the source of light comes from different directions.
In my own personal experience, I have applied the scientific method to some of the simplest questions I’ve had the chance to encounter in my life. One such example where I constantly apply it is when making projects whether they are for school or for personal enjoyment, especially when the project requires so many redundant details such as cutting strips of paper or stitching something up or anything else. Although this is not exactly the same in doing scientific experiments, the same principles apply.
Since I am always concerned with efficiency in doing things, I always ask myself, what is the shortest way I’ll be able to do this while maintaining a standard of quality? This forms the observation and questioning phase. From past experiences and from certain observations, there are many methods that can be applied and I think of the best ones that might apply to what I am currently working on. These comply with the hypothesis that one of the methods that I have thought of will work, which brings me to the experimentation phase.
Here, I test which ones work best on a small scale, checking which ones I finish more quickly and produce the same results despite separate repetitions of the method. Upon seeing the results of my experiments, I finally come to the conclusion that at least one of the methods is efficient and effective in producing mass quantities of material for the project I am working on. Sometimes, this leads to other questions such as whether or not the method can be applied to other materials, or which materials work best with that method.
This may then catapult me back to the scientific method from the beginning. References What is Biology?. Retrieved July 27, 2010 from http://course1. winona. edu/mdelong/principles/ Lecture%201%20-%20Introduction. ppt Association for Psychological Science. (July 27, 2010). Genetics may Influence Social Drinking. Medical News Today. Retrieved July 27, 2010 from http://www. medicalnewstoday. com/ articles/195725. php